1990年後大學學費政策之比較研究—以我國、美國及德國為例 A comparative study on higher education tuition policy in Taiwan(ROC), USA and Germany

Date
2005
Authors
鄭淑華
Cheng,Shu-Hua
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Abstract
1990年後大學學費政策之比較研究-以我國、美國及德國為例 摘 要 本文研究係採取貝瑞德(G.Z.F. Bereday)比較研究法,針對1990年後我國、美國及德國大學學費政策進行比較分析,本研究主要目的有四:一、瞭解各國大學發展與現況;二、探討各國政府與大學之間的關係;三、瞭解各國大學經費來源與學費現況。四、比較各國大學學費政策及其影響。 本研究發現:近年來大學學費政策及負擔大學費用能力的問題,在我國、美國與德國都引起相當多的討論,惟各國的發展情況仍有異同之處。相同點:一、高等教育數量大幅擴增;二、教育經費補助逐年刪減;三、公立大學學費調漲快速;四、由受教者分擔教育成本;五、提供學生財務支援措施;六、學校經費籌措多元化。相異點:一、學費政策制定之方式不同:以國家干預或市場調節的方式來看,我國為集中型、美國為分散型、德國為混合型;二、教育成本及學費高低之不同:教育成本以美國為最高、德國次之、我國再次之;學費高低以美國為最高、我國次之、德國再次之;三、學費現況及收費制度之差異性大:我國公私立大學學雜費差距大,外國學生收費比照本國生標準,但多享有獎學金;美國公立大學學雜費一般比私立大學便宜很多,但學費高低依學生身分而有所不同,只有本地生才享有最優惠;德國公立大學免學費,且適用於本國生或外國生;四、學費政策之管制方式不同:我國屬於政府管制模式、美國為市場模式、德國為政府機關模式;五、學費政策之爭議不同:我國為公私立大學學雜費差距的問題、美國為大學費用負擔能力的問題、德國為大學即將實施收費的問題;六、學費政策之影響不同:我國為教育資源分配不均產生社會不公平現象、美國為大學費用負擔沉重造成貸款有增無減現象、德國為寬進嚴出政策致產生「萬年學生」的問題。
A comparative study on higher education tuition policy in Taiwan(ROC), USA and Germany Abstract This study adopt analysis and comparative research method developed by G.Z.F. Bereday. It aim’s compare the higher education tuition policy in Taiwan, USA and Germany. The purposes of this study are as follows:1. to understand the backgrounds and the present situation of universities in each of these countries;2. to find out the relationship between the government and university;3. to explore and analyze the sources of university’s funds and the present situation of tuition and fee in each of these countries;4.to compare the difference of tuition policies in higher education and their impact. The conclusions of this study are as follows:There are some similarities and differences among the these countries. The similarities are listed as follows:1. The number of higher education students and institutions increase. 2. The subsidization of education funds decrease. 3. There have been a significant increase of tuition in public universities. 4. Students are responsible for pay educational cost. 5. All governments provide students with financial subsidies. 6. The university funds come form multiple sources. The differences are listed as follows:1. The tuition policy made in these countries not alike. 2. These countries have diverse educational cost and tuition charge. 3. These countries have distinct tuition charging system. 4. The regulation of tuition policy different from these countries. 5. These countries debated on the tuition policy derived from different viewpoints. 6.The impact of tuition policy in these countries is varies.
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Keywords
高等教育, 學費政策, 比較研究, higher education, tuition policy, comparative study
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