國中生關係攻擊受害經驗與心理社會適應之關係:友誼特性的角色

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2010

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關係攻擊對於青少年的傷害可能更甚於皮肉之傷,遭受關係攻擊的受害者可能會有許多心理上的不良適應。本研究之目的在探討國中生友誼特性在關係攻擊受害經驗與心理社會適應之間的角色。其中再將關係攻擊受害經驗依攻擊來源不同區分為來自「一般同學」或「好朋友」所進行的關係攻擊,探討兩種關係攻擊受害經驗與心理社會適應之關係;並探究「正向友誼品質」、「負向友誼品質」、「互選好朋友數量」和「友誼滿意度」此四項友誼特性對關係攻擊受害經驗與心理社會適應的風險因子「焦慮沮喪」、「孤獨感」與「外化性行為問題」之關係,是否有調節效果。本研究的研究對象為873位國中生(男生446位,女生427位,七年級446位,八年級427位)。研究工具為「一般同學關係攻擊受害經驗量表」、「好朋友關係攻擊受害經驗量表」、「好朋友提名問卷」、「國中生友誼品質量表」、「國中生心理社會適應量表」。本研究結果發現:(1)關係攻擊受害經驗與心理社會適應不良有顯著的正相關;(2)關係攻擊受害經驗和友誼特性對心理社會適應有顯著的預測力;(3)不同的關係攻擊受害經驗與友誼特性呈現不同的相關趨勢;(4)「正向友誼品質」對「一般同學關係攻擊受害經驗」和「孤獨感」的關係有調節效果;(5)「互選好朋友數」對「好朋友關係攻擊受害經驗」與「外化性行為問題」的關係有調節效果。
For adolescents, the harms caused by relational victimization may be more severe than physical injuries. People with experiences of relational victimization may suffer from psychological maladjustment. The present research aimed to investigate the impact of friendship features on the experiences of relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment among junior high school students. Two types of relational victimization were defined as from the “general classmates”and “close friends” depending on the victimized source. Four variables representing friendship features were included in this study, i.e., positive friendship quality, negative friendship quality, numbers of mutual friends, and friendship satisfaction. The moderating role of friendship features in the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment was examined. The participants were 873 junior high school students (446 boys and 427 girls; 446 seventh graders and 427 eighth graders). The “Relational Victimization Scale for General Classmates”, “Relational Victimization Scale for Close Friends”, “Close Friends Nominate Questionnaire”, “Friendship Quality Scale” and “Psychosocial Adjustment Scale” were used. The results were: (1) The experience of relational victimization and psychosocial maladjustment correlated positively; (2) Relational victimization and friendship quality significantly predicted psychosocial adjustment; (3) Different relational victimization correlated friendship quality differently; (4) The variable of “positive friendship quality” buffered the relationship between “relational victimization from general classmates” and “loneliness”; (5) The variable of “numbers of mutual friends” buffered the relationship between “relational victimization from close friends” and “externalized behavioral problems”.

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關係攻擊受害, 友誼特性, 心理社會適應, relational victimization, friendship features, psychosocial adjustment

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