親職教育方案對正向家人互動之影響~以嘉義縣海、屯區小學功能不足家庭為例

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2018

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本研究旨在了解功能不足家庭之正向家人互動態度與行為狀況,發展一個適用於功能不足家庭之親職教育方案,探究方案實施對功能不足家庭正向家人互動態度及行為之促進效果。本研究採準實驗研究法,以嘉義縣海區及屯區共計41個功能不足家庭(n=91)為研究對象,分為實驗組(n=21)及對照組(n=20)兩組。實驗組成員(n=51)接受兩天之小團體活動,及為期一個月之個別家庭訪視活動,對照組(n=40)則不接受任何實驗處理。在方案介入前、小團體活動後及個別家庭訪視後,分別針對實驗組及對照組進行「正向家人互動量表」之前測、第一次後測及第二次後測,以了解方案介入之成效。在方案進行過程,同時使用「學習單」、「方案回饋表」、「觀察者紀錄表」與「個別家庭訪視訪談」,做為評估與紀錄實驗組家庭成員學習實況、對課程內容及實施方式之感受回饋及家庭作業之實踐概況。本研究之主要結果如下: 一、適用於功能不足家庭之親職教育方案內涵包括:感激與愛、家庭的承諾、享受在一起的時間、正向溝通、希望感及處理壓力與危機的能力等;實施方式則為兩天小團體活動之觸發,搭配為期一個月個別家庭訪視活動之延伸。 二、功能不足家庭成員之正向家人互動態度狀況為中上程度;而正向家人互動行為狀況則為中等到中上程度,皆仍有可進步之空間。 三、實驗組家庭成員在正向家人互動量表之態度與行為量表在控制前測得分後之第一次後測得分上,幾乎皆顯著高於對照組家庭成員,僅「親代及子代在溝通與角色期待上所持之態度」、「親代在溝通與角色期待上所表現之行為」與「子代在問題解決上所表現之行為」得分未達顯著,顯示小團體活動可促進實驗組部分成員之正向家人互動態度與行為的發展。 四、實驗組家庭成員在正向家人互動量表之態度與行為量表在控制前測得分後之第二次後測得分上,皆顯著高於對照組家庭成員,顯示個別家庭訪視活動可促進實驗組全體成員之正向家人互動態度與行為的發展。 最後,依據上述結論,研究者針對功能不足家庭成員、親職教育之規畫與推動實務及未來研究等三方面,提出具體建議,以提供家庭及相關單位之參考。
This study focused on understanding the attitude and behavior toward positive family interaction in under-functioning families, developing parenting program, and evaluating the effects of the program on under-functioning family members’ attitude and behavior changes in positive family interaction. Quasi-experimental design was conducted in this study. 91 participants from 41 families in Chiayi County participated in the experiment.These participants were divided into theexperimental group and the control group. The experimental group(n=51)was given a 2-day “small group activities” and 1-month “home-visit activities”, and the control group was given no intervention. To understand the effects of the program, both groups of family members were asked to fill out the “questionnaire on positive family interaction” in the beginning, 2 days later, and 1 month later. During the program, “learning sheets”, “course feedback forms”, and “ the under-functioning family interview” were used to evaluate and record participants’ learning conditions, feedbacks, and accomplishment of assignments. The results were as follows: 1.The suitable contents of parenting program for under-functioning families include:appreciation and affection, commitment, enjoyable time together, positive communication, spiritual well-being, and the ability to manage stress and crisis effectively.The suitable mode of execution includes 2 days small group activity and 1month home visit activity. 2.The behavior and attitude toward positive family interaction were both above average on the response scales among the under-functioning family members. Both outcomes left rooms for further progressiveness. 3.Family members in the experimental group scored almost all significantly higher than those in the control group in the first post-test of positive family interaction attitude and behavior. However, significant differences were not identified in the “ parents’ and children’s attitude of communication and role expectation”, the“parents’ behavior of communication and role expectation ”, and the “children’s behavior of problem solving” subscale scores. This result suggested that the small group activities could partly promote the under-functioning family members’ attitude and behavior toward positive family interaction. 4.Family members in the experimental group scored significantly higher than those in the control group in the second post-test of positive family interaction attitude and behavior.This result suggested that the home-visit activities could promote the under-functioning family members’ attitude and behavior toward positive family interaction. Finally, based on the above results, this study also provided specific suggestions regarding under-functioning family members, design and promotion of parenting program, and future research, which could be a reference for families and institutions concerned.

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親職教育方案, 正向家人互動, 功能不足家庭, parenting program, positive family interaction, under-functioning families

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