局外見證者引入身心障礙兒家長支持團體之研究:多元視框觀點

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2014

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Abstract

本研究主要目的是探討將敘事治療中「局外見證者」(outsider witness)引入身心障礙兒家長支持團體,對身心障礙兒家長、局外見證者本身,以及專業人員等帶來的改變經驗,以此作為未來研究與實務工作的參考。研究參與者為七位育有亞斯柏格症或輕度自閉症兒童之父母,並由二位育有亞斯柏格症之父母擔任局外見證者。共進行八次支持團體,並於其中二次引入局外見證者。研究方法採訪談法及團體領導者(即研究者)之反思。資料分析的形式採「類別-內容」取向分析,分析視框包含團體參與、局外見證者,以及團體帶領者三方視框,分析結果由受訪者進行效度檢核,評分者同意度介於85%~100%。 研究結果顯示,團體參與者、局外見證者,以及團體帶領者三方之改變機制及改變結果並不完全相同。局外見證者的主要催化機制是其基於聽眾立場,看見了「他者的整體視框」,因此反思自我之處境;團體參與者的主要催化機制則是藉由「他者重述」,達成視框在「我—他—我」之間的轉換,形成反思。至於專業人員則是在引領團體過程中,洞見團體參與者與局外見證者及自身視框的交會,促使其發現了更真實的自我,並鬆動了舊有的信念價值,回歸諮商師最原初使命感與信念。在改變結果方面,三方視框由於在見證的過程中促發了「自體經驗客體化」的歷程,並因此覺察了過往過於單薄的視框,發現了其忽略的自我,或納入了新的自我,進而對自我重新定義。 最後,本研究亦詳細地論述了,將局外見證者引入團體諮商時,在實務及操作上需注意之細節;包含局外見證者的「遴選」、「事前準備」及「正式操作」等三個部份,期能提供未來研究及實務工作者之參考。
The present study explored the effects of outsider witness implemented in a support group for parents with mentally disabled children. Specifically, three perspectives were explored: Perspectives of parent with mentally disabled children (PDC), outsider witness (OW), and professional. Eight parents and two outsider witnesses with Asperger syndrome / autism children participated in an eight-sessions support group. Outsider witness procedure was implemented for two sessions of the support group. Participants were interviewed to collect their experiences and reflections about outsider witness implementation. The texts were analyzed by the content-categorical approach. The results indicated that there were different therapeutic factors for PDCs and OWs. Both PDCs and OWs perceived similar experiences of each other. They transferred their subjective experiences to objective positions that led them to reflect on their past limited perspectives, and thus resulted in self redefinition. However, the mechanisms underlying this process were different for PDCs and OWs. OWs were catalyzed by listening to the narratives of PDCs, while PDCs were catalyzed by the OWs’ iteration. At last, by observing the intersection between PDCs and OWs, the professional was reminded and aware of the original intention of why she devoted to be a counselor. Finally, this study provided practical guidelines for outsider witness practice, including selection, preparation, and operation.

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局外見證者, 敘事治療, 家長支持團體, 身心障礙, 亞斯伯格症, Outsider Witness, Narrative Therapy, Support Group for Parents, Physically and Mentally Disabled, Asperger syndrome

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