共同所有權與原住民財產權作為台灣土地產權系統的挑戰:來自澳洲經驗的見解

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2017-05-??

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地理學系
Department of Geography, NTNU

Abstract

國家對於當代原住民土地權利的未充分回應和無解反映出了台灣現行土地登記制度的疏漏之處。該土地登記系統為中國國民黨政府在西元1945 年後引入台灣。在此系統中僅允許土地被登記為個人所有權,而非共同所有權、習慣所有權或集體所有權,並將所有未由個人登記持有的土地轉為公有地或國有地。台灣現行土地登記系統主要襲自澳洲托崙斯制度,而其核心為經由登記程序所取得的不容質疑的土地所有權。在台灣採行托崙斯制度形成只允許原住民族的土地權利訴求被登記為個人的土地所有權的情勢,這個結果導致原住民族對於祖居地或傳統領域的共同所有權未獲承認。反觀澳洲,在持續採用托崙斯制度的同時,業已發展出許多重要的法律和司法經驗來肯認原住民族對土地的共同所有權。本研究旨在探討澳洲經驗對於台灣原住民族土地權利訴求與共享公共財產利益的啟發。
Inadequate and unresolved state responses to contemporary Indigenous land right claims in Taiwan reflect a deep flaw in the country’s current land registry. The land titling system, which was introduced by the KMT government after 1945, allows the registration of individual titles, but not communal, customary or collective titles, and effectively classifies all unregistered and untitled land as belonging to the state. The system is principally derived from Australia’s Torrens title system, for which the core element is an indefeasible title by registration. The adoption of the Torrens title system in Taiwan has allowed Indigenous claims only to be registered as individual titles. Therefore, tensions over the non-recognition of communal titles that are derived from Indigenous peoples’ ancestral domains or traditional territories are ongoing. In contrast, Australia has developed significant statutory and juridical experience that has resulted in the formal recognition of Indigenous peoples’ communal titles alongside continued operation of the Torrens title system. This paper discusses how this experience might inform and support future recognition of Indigenous land right claims and shared communal property interests in Taiwan.

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