教室裡的國族他者? 中國返臺生的校園生活經驗探究

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2019

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本研究主要以移動、認同及多元文化教育的觀點,討論自中國回來臺灣的返臺生在中等教育現場的受誤認經驗,並進一步分析背後的原因;當返臺生面對這樣的誤認時,他們的詮釋及回應又是如何;最後當返臺生自中等教育離開後,上述經驗會如何影響他的國族認同及後續的生涯選擇,是本研究關注的焦點。加以目前國內現有研究中較少有針對返臺生的研究,是本研究期待可帶來的貢獻。 為使讀者對本研究的方向有基本認識,本研究首先探究移動理論,強調移動者的遷移會受到移居國與母國間不同文化、生活狀態交織影響,又返臺生具有「回流遷移」的特色,在移動的動態歷程上呈現更多元樣貌;接著針對「認同研究」進行文獻回顧,並以國族認同理論的根基論、工具論及想像的共同體作為主要認同理論介紹,並強調「認同」建立在社會建構、情境轉變的過程中;接著返臺生的「返」其實背後有著「去」的背景,因此從其根源「臺商」出發,進一步針對臺商子女現有的文獻;最後是針對多元文化教育的意義與目標、教師扮演的角色進行爬梳,並整理目前多元文化教育對群體身份受誤認的研究,作為後續返臺生校園生活經驗的參考。本研究以半結構式深度訪談已經離開中等教育階段的返臺生,面對過往校園生活經驗時是否有受到誤認、如何詮釋與回應以及這些經驗如何影響國族認同及其後續生涯選擇。 經訪談後發現,返臺生移動經驗因臺灣社會脈絡面對中國時,有著「兩岸靠近又對立、臺灣社會政治立場分歧」的特殊性,因此返臺生雖具臺灣人身份,但在校園中易被同儕視為「外來的」、「不文明的」、「具中國立場的」敵對他者;除同儕外,教師忽略校園中有這樣處境不利學生時,亦會加強返臺生在中等教育中被他者化的可能;返臺生受誤認當下回應的策略雖然多元,但其回應的目的多為避免衝突與自我保護;論上述經驗對返臺生後續的影響,會發現誤認經驗會造成返臺生返臺後國族認同混淆,但臺灣中等教育的啟發則有助返臺生強化或重構國族認同,使返臺生後續職涯選擇多嚮往國外發展,呈現移動經驗會帶動返臺生的再移動現象。
This research mainly discusses the experiences of misrecognition in high school life of China-returned Taiwanese students from the perspective of Multicultural Education, moving, and acknowledgment. And further analyzing the causes of misrecognition ; how do these students react when facing the misrecognition? Eventually, how would the experiences of misrecognition and the growing process affect their national recognition and future career path after graduation? These questions are the focus of this research. In addition, research based on China-returned Taiwanese students is quite few; it’s believed that this research can bring great contribution to this category. In order to provide readers with a basic understanding of this research, this research starts with moving theory, emphasizing a mover can be affected by the diversified cultures and living status of moving country and mother country. Also, the China-returned students are provided with “return migration”, which enables them to appear more differently in their growing and moving process. Furthermore, this research will present literature review of “recognition research”, followed by the Primordialism and the Instrumentalism of National recognition research as main theories and put emphasis on the fact that “recognition” is based on social structure and scenario transformation. On the other hand, China-returned Taiwanese students are also those who “go” to China with their parents developing business when they were kids. Therefore, this research will also bring some academic research of children of Taiwanese businessmen in China, which may be the primary reason of the misrecognition. In the end, this research will focus on the meaning and target of Multicultural Education and the special role a teacher may play. Moreover, this research will also summarize the current research of Multicultural Education and Misrecognition and thus can be considered as a school-life reference of China-returned Taiwanese students in the future. This research also conducts some in-depth interviews about reaction and response while these students, who have left the high school life, facing problems like misrecognition in their past, and how these experiences change their National Identity and their career path in the future. Among these interviews, we found out a fact that due to the special relationship between Taiwan and China, which simultaneously includes rivalry and closeness, even if these students are Taiwanese, their peers may still see them as foreigners, uncivilized, or even Chinese. Except for the peers, teachers also forget to play a crucial role, which results in greater extents of misrecognition. Although the responses of misrecognition are quite diversified, the purposes of these reactions are essentially self-protection and preventing them from conflicts. To sum up, we can conclude from the above paragraphs that misrecognition can lead to confusion of national identity of these China-returned students after coming back to Taiwan. Nevertheless, the inspiration of high school education in Taiwan can play a crucial role in helping these students reconstruct their national identity, and select an international career path. In other words, the moving experiences in the past somehow make these students more likely to move again in the future.

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返臺生, 臺商子女, 回流遷移, 誤認, 國族認同

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