Pierre Bourdieu「藝術場域自主化」的理論:以庫爾貝與馬內為例

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本論文試圖考察法國社會學家Pierre Bourdieu(1930-2002)關於「藝術場域」及其「自主化」的理論;從中檢視「象徵革命」的歷史起源問題,並思考「場域」研究在藝術史方法的應用。本文認為「場域」以權力關係為核心的探討方式,點出現代藝術世界並非穩定的結構狀態,而是一個不斷競爭象徵權力的競技場。 本論文有兩個主要探討問題:其一是場域的歷史起源,其二是方法學議題。Bourdieu雖然主張社會條件與結構變化為「場域自主化」的起因,並歸結馬內為核心人物;其探究的素材仍多取自於傳統藝術史範疇:競賽機制、繪畫主題、繪畫構成等。本文重新審視這些範疇,發現庫爾貝的寫實主義事件足以作為更早的「象徵革命」開端,因為它具備1849年沙龍評審團改制、挑戰學院成規及樹立新的繪畫語彙等類似條件。另一方面,方法學探究的基礎來自於晚期的課堂講稿(1999-2002),Bourdieu晚期開始與特定的藝術史論述進行對話,與早先對藝術哲學的批評有很大的差異。本論文以其評判T.J. Clark《現代生活的畫像》為例,嘗試區辨藝術社會史與場域論的差異。最終,由分析馬內肖像畫和《情感教育》的例證中可看出,Bourdieu心目中科學的藝術社會研究,應該從藝術家的慣習出發,分析個體軌跡、權力關係及與其交互關係,客觀地重建一個文化生產者的空間。
This thesis attempt researching on French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s (1930-2002) theory of “artistic field” and its “autonomization”. By analyzing relative concepts, this thesis manages to examine the genesis of “symbolic revolution”, and explore how to adopt the “field” approach into art history study. Focusing on power relations, “field” points out the very meaning that modern art world is an arena for symbolic power rather than a stable structure. This thesis mainly focus on two problems: one is the historical genesis of field, the other is methodological issue. Although Bourdieu claimed that social conditions and structural changes are the catalysts of “field of autonomization”, and dated back to Édouard Manet (1832-1883) as key figure; his materials were most quoted from traditional art history categories: competing institution, painting motifs and compositions etc.. This thesis reexamines these categories, and discovers that Gustave Courbet’s realism event can be the former beginning of “symbolic revolution” due to its sufficient conditions-the regrouping of Salon censor committee in 1849, Courbet’s challenge on academic canons, and the establishment of new painting language. On the other hand, the ground of methodological research results from Bourdieu’s discourses and manuscripts in his later period (1999-2002) which were quite different from his critics on aesthetics in former career. Taking his comments on T.J. Clark’s The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers as example, this thesis manage to distinguish the social history of art from the “field” approach. Depends on the instances of Manet’s portraiture and Sentimental Education, Bourdieu’s scientific sociological study of art should be served as a way to reconstruct a space of cultural producers subjectively─which should initiate from the habitus of artists, analyze individuals’ trajectories and power relations between them as well as their mutuality.



藝術場域, 自主化, 象徵革命, 機制失序, 馬內, 庫爾貝, 慣習, 藝術社會史, artistic field, autonomization, symbolic revolution, anomie, Édouard Manet, Gustave Courbet, habitus, social history of art