大眾對科學的回應:科學傳播量表之開發與效化

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2018

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本研究旨在研發「科學傳播量表」(Scale of Science Communication, SSC),由科學傳播中「回應」角度為出發點,檢視大眾接觸科學時的個人回應感受。SSC量表根據Burns等人(2003)對科學傳播的定義進行問卷的編製,包含五個面向:「覺知(awareness, A)」、「享受(enjoyment, E)」、「興趣(interest, I)」、「看法形成(opinion-formation, O)」,以及「理解(understanding, U)」。 研究設計採問卷調查法,共蒐集340份大眾所填寫之問卷,藉由本次的試驗性研究,進行問卷工具精緻化及初探結果分析。問卷工具使用信度與效度作為可靠度考驗,並針對大眾表現結果與基本資料間的關係作初步探討,分組進行t-test及變異數分析(ANOVA)。 研究結果顯示:(一)SSC共分作五個面向,共20題,具有良好之信度,整份問卷信度之Cronbach’s α值為0.95,AEIOU各面向信度區間在0.84-0.93之間;效度表現也具良好的考驗程度,可供後續教學或研究使用。(二)台灣大眾普遍在SSC問卷上,對科學自我回應表現良好,平均值分數達5.73(滿分為7分)。然而,興趣(E)及看法形成(O)兩面向相對表現較差,分別為5.35和5.23分。(三)12-18歲之族群在SSC量表表現相較於其他年齡組別有顯著較低的現象。(四)女生在SSC量表的表現上,除了對科學的覺知(A)外,其餘的面向均顯著低於男生表現。(五)教育程度為國中階段者,在SSC量表表現較差。(六)職業領域與科學關係越緊密,SSC表現越好。(七)不同接觸科學議題管道對SSC量表中各面向有不同的影響。 以上的研究結果對於大眾接觸科學學習時的回應感受,與將來欲達成培育之科學素養具有一定的啟示,利於後續教師教學或其他非制式科學教育、科普活動使用,對後續之研究有相當的助益。
The purpose of this study is to develop a scale (SSC: Scale of Science Communication) to measure five aspects of people’s response to science communication, namely, “awareness(A)”, “enjoyment(E)”, “interest(I)”, “Opinion-formation (O)” ,and “understanding (U)”. 340 participants’s data where collected through online-based and paper-based questionnaires. Factor analysis was applied to refined the items and the preliminary results were analyzed. Furthermore, t-test and ANOVA were applied to compare the SSC results between groups of various background according to their demographic data. The results show that: 1.SSC has a good reliability. The Cronbach's alpha value of the entire questionnaire reliability is 0.95, and each factor of SSC has the reliability between 0.84-0.93. The scale also has a good result of validity. It’s a good tool for follow-up teaching or research. 2.Participants generally responded highly in SSC questionnaire with a mean score of 5.73 (total 7). However, “enjoyment” (5.35) and “opinion-formation” (5.23) were relatively lower. 3.The 12-18-year-olds responded significantly lower than other age groups in SSC. 4.Female responded lower in SSC than male significantly, except for factor A(awareness). 5.Junior high schoolers responded lowest in SSC. 6.Those with science-related major or career responded higher than those in the opposite group. 7.Various paths of communication (museum, newspaper, Television-programs, etc.) could generated different responses of the AEIOU: “awareness(A)”, “enjoyment(E)”, “interest(I)”, “Opinion-formation (O)” ,and “understanding (U)”. The result of the current study may support as a good tool for follow-up teaching, informal science education and science popularization’s activities, and brought potential benefits for futher future research in science communication.

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科學傳播, 對科學的回應, 量表發展, 情意量表, science communication, the response to science, scale development, affective scale

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