晚清接受新式教育的先行者研究(1840-1894)

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2011

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本研究為探討晚清西風東漸之際,在鴉片戰爭(1840)到甲午戰爭(1894)期間,最早接受新式教育者的受教歷程及其發展情形,以期描繪出新舊教育制度更迭的脈絡,共選擇了容閎、馬相伯、馬建忠、伍廷芳、嚴復、何啓、詹天佑等七位在此時期於國內外接受過新式教育的時代人物為研究對象,並從:家庭背景、就學動機、就學機構、求學過程及日後發展等五方面進行分析。 本研究主要結論如下: 一、自家庭背景分析可知,居於中國東南沿海、居中下階層的社會地位與信仰基督教等因素,使先行者們有更多機會比他人早一步選擇新式教育。 二、從就學動機發現到,促使先行者們選擇新式教育的關鍵,乃基於個人或該家庭的個別考量或嘗試,未有一共同因素。 三、從就學機構分析發現,先行者所就讀的新式教育機構,有逐步由初等教育、中等教育延伸高等教育,且這些學校多半與基督教會有關。 四、經由歸納求學過程,得出下列幾項特點: (一)大多數先行者們仍接受過中國傳統教育。 (二)當求學經費來自外界資助時,學位攻讀的方向亦較易受經費提供者所約束。 (三)配合中國「近現代化」過程,對於軍工專才的需求大於一般通才。 五、從日後發展的分析,可條列出幾個共同特徵: (一)人脈關係與先行者們的人生發展息息相關,且在清廷官場中特別顯著。 (二)先行者們在政治上的發展,與當時主政者對新式教育人才的重視程度,以及社會對新式教育學歷的認可接受程度有關。 (三)由於本身的學習經歷與專業能力,先行者們多有辦理新式教育的機會與經驗。 (四)由於先行者們本身兼習東西方知識,及在受新式教育歷程中體認到中外差異,他們多曾從事思想傳播工作,包括辦報、譯書與著作等。
In order to discover the turning point between traditional and new education in later Ching Dynasty, and to synthesize the context of education and life of new intellectuals at that time, this study focuses on the experiences of the pioneers of new education during 1840-1894. Therefore, seven famous figures educated at the new western schools were selected to analyze: Yung Wing, Ma Xiang-Bo, Ma Jian-Zhong, Wu Ting-Fang, Yan Fu, Ho Kai, and Jeme Tien-Yow. Their educational and career experiences were analyzed from five dimensions: background, motives, institutions, educational process, and career development. The conclusions of this study are as follows: i. As to the background, those factors such as living in the southeastern coastal areas, belonging to the lower class, and believing the Christian religion would offer more opportunities for people to take new western education. ii. As to the motives, there wasn’t the one common reason for pioneers to choose new western education. iii. As to the institutions, it is found that those western schooling pioneers taking extended from the primary level to higher one, and most of them were run by Christian churches. iv. As to educational process, it is found that (1) more than half of the pioneers had some experiences of traditional education; (2) when tuition fees were paid by the sponsors, who would influenced the pioneers’ education choices; (3) with the process modernization in China, the manpower demand of industry specialists would need more than that of liberal arts. v. As to career development, it is revealed that: (1) personal relational network is one of decisive factors to the career development of those pioneers, especially in the Qing’s government; (2) their development in politics would relate to the attitude of the senior officers charging the international affairs in the central government and the admissibility of the society; owing to their academic degrees and competences, those pioneers have more chances and experiences to engage in the new western education; (4) based on their cross-culture experiences and awareness of the differences between the West and the East, most of pioneers had transformed the western thoughts into China by ways of running newspaper, translations or writings.

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新式教育, 西式教育, 教育先行者, 容閎, 馬相伯, 馬建忠, 伍廷芳, 嚴復, 何啟, 詹天佑, new education, western education, Yung Wing, Ma Xiang-Bo, Ma Jian-Zhong, Wu Ting-Fang, Yan Fu, Ho Kai, Jeme Tien-Yow

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