閱讀理解能力與數學能力對小學六年級低成就學生在數學文字題解題表現之影響

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2010

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  本研究之目的為探討閱讀理解能力與數學能力對國小六年級低成就學生的數學文字題解題表現的影響。藉由放聲思考法及結構式晤談蒐集每一位學生在「朗讀流暢度」、「關鍵句型的理解」、「數學概念的理解」、「數學文字題列算式的表現」、及「算術能力」等五個變項之表現。其中,「朗讀流暢度」和「關鍵句型的理解」與閱讀理解能力有關,因此擬以此兩個變項瞭解閱讀理解能力對數學文字題解題表現的影響。「數學概念的理解」、「數學文字題列算式的表現」、「算術能力」與數學能力有關,因此擬以此三個變項瞭解數學能力對數學文字題解題表現的影響。研究對象為九十位國小六年級學生。研究者先以「中文年級認字量表」、「閱讀理解困難篩選測驗」和數學成就表現將學生分為數閱低組、數低組和數閱一般組,每組各三十人。最後,以獨立樣本單因子變異數分析與獨立樣本單因子共變數分析比較三組表現的差異。   研究結果如下: 一、數閱一般組:數閱一般組之所以能夠成功解題,主要是因為認字效能佳,也能夠理解數學文字題中的關鍵句型,在閱讀數學文字題時,能掌握數學概念,並根據數學概念列出正確的算式,並具有良好的算術能力運算正確的結果。 二、數閱低組:造成此組數學低成就的原因除了數學概念掌握度不佳之外,還有認字效能不佳,以及無法理解數學文字題中的關鍵句型,在閱讀數學文字題時,無法掌握數學概念,無法根據數學概念列出正確的算式,並且算術能力亦不足。 三、數低組:數低組在解數學文字題時,由於無法理解數學概念,即使學生能回答數學概念的定義,仍無法順利應用相關知識列出正確的算式。此外,數低組的學生除了數學概念的應用能力不佳之外,算術能力亦不足。   依據研究結果,本研究進一步提出對未來研究上的建議。
  The purpose of this study is to investigate how reading comprehension and mathematical ability influence low achievers’ performance on math word problem solving. Participants were 90 six-graders (43 boys, 47girls) in elementary school. Children were divided into 3 achievement groups: children with low achievements in mathematics but not in reading (MLRN), children with low achievements in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), children with normal achievement in both mathematics and reading (MNRN).The primary dependent variables for this investigation were oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension of key sentence pattern, comprehension of math concept, comprehension of arithmetic word problem and arithmetic abilities in solving arithmetic word problems. Finally, the data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA.   This article proposed three conclusions. First, when solving mathematic word patterns, MNRN students could read fluently and comprehend key sentence patterns correctly. They also could understand and apply math concept correctly to solve arithmetic word problems. Second, MLRN students could comprehend key sentence patterns as well as MNRN students, and they could answer definition of mathematic concepts in arithmetic word problems which sounded like they having knowledge of math concepts. However, when asking to explain equations they listed, their failures reveal that they could not do well to apply mathematic concepts to solve arithmetic word problems. In addition, their poor arithmetic ability would affect their rformance as well. Third, MLRL students could not figure out key sentence patterns, so they comprehended arithmetic word problems incorrectly. In addition, their poor performances in ORF could explain their poor comprehension of key sentence patterns. Furthermore, they could not understand math concept either, so they could not list correct equations to solve arithmetic word problems. In short, the poor performance of MLRL students on arithmetic word problems resulted from poor comprehension of key sentence patterns and math concepts, and poor arithmetic ability.

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低成就學生, 閱讀理解能力, 數學能力, 朗讀流暢度, 數學文字題, low achiever, reading comprehension ability, mathematical ability, oral reading fluency, math word problem

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