操作式模型的解說文字結構對民眾參觀行為與相關概念的影響—以「星座盤」為例

Abstract

本文以臺北市立天文科學教育館(以下簡稱天文館)的星座盤模型為例,探討不同結構之操作式模型的解說文字,對讀者操作行為及其星座概念理解的影響。根據「以經驗為基礎的博物館學習理論」,本研究整理出與該展示學習結果相對應的行為類型,並以系統功能語言學(SFL)分析原版解說文本,再以符合該理論的方式撰寫新版本,然後以準實驗研究法比較二種版本對參觀行為與相關概念的影響。經由SFL的分析可了解,天文館的星座盤原版解說文字多處不合乎訊息傳遞的原則,且其採取「解釋」體裁,強調抽象概念的說明;本研究則考量該展示為操作式模型,故採取「做科學」體裁,並以符合SFL的方式重新撰寫相同內涵的解說文本。針對不同版本的影響,以錄影觀察了解民眾的參觀行為,以臨床晤談了解民眾的相關概念,二版本所蒐集之結果以無母數方法比較分析。錄影觀察總共1284人次;臨床晤談共39組66人。結果發現:整體而言有閱讀行為的民眾大約佔參觀民眾的12%;天文館原版解說過於簡潔抽象,對於現場想要操作的民眾幫助不大;本研究改寫版本雖無法提升參觀民眾的閱讀比例,但強調操作與觀察的解說方式,有助提升參觀民眾合適行為與相關概念的理解;就改版解說而言,以閱讀不同欄位者相比較,閱讀內含具體操作方式之欄位的人,按鈕比例最高,而閱讀與操作無關內容的人,按鈕比例較低。本研究建議如下:操作式展示品的文字解說應該加強具體操作與觀察的指引,且順序應從具體操作、觀察現象慢慢提升到抽象概念;參觀民眾對尋找生日星座非常感興趣,不妨將之納入星座盤解說中。
The Effects of The Structures of the Interpretation of a Manipulative Exhibit on the Behavior and Conceptual understanding of the Visitors – with the case of the Planisphere Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the ways to compose the interpretation of a manipulative exhibit to improve the proper behavior and the conceptual understanding about the exhibit, with the case of the Planisphere in Taipei Astronomical Museum (TAM). A checking list of the behavior was made due to the ‘experience-based theory’ of museum learning, and the original interpretation was analyzed with the Systematic Functional Linguistics (SFL), then a new version of interpretation was composed due to SFL. A Quasi-experiment was designed to compare the effect between them. According to SFL, the structure of the original violates the theory to carry message, the genre of the interpretation of this exhibit is ‘Explanation’ and the content is full of abstract concept. This study composed another interpretation based on SFL, and the ‘Doing Science’ genre was selected on the basis of the type of this exhibit. In order to compare the differences between the two versions, video observation was adopted to collect the data of behavior and clinical interview was adopted to collect the data of conceptual understanding. These data was analyzed with nonparametric test. This study recorded 1284 person-time in total; and there were 66 persons in 39 groups interviewed at that time. The major finding of this research is as following: the ratio of the visitors to read is about 12%; the original interpretation of the Planisphere in TAM is succinct, and cannot guide the reader to manipulate; the new version composed by this study could improve some proper behavior and some conceptual understanding of the exhibit, but it failed to promote the ratio of the readers; the best way to improve the manipulative behavior is to tell the exact action, the effect decay when telling something abstract. There are several suggestions from this research: the interpretation of the manipulative exhibit should enhance the guide of the procedure; the way to compose the interpretation of the manipulative exhibit is from concrete to abstract; the visitors were interested in the genethliac astrology, more information about these with scientific view would be better.

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Keywords

星座盤, 解說文字, 操作式模型/展示, 科學中心, 系統功能語言學, planisphere, interpretation, manipulative exhibit, science center, Systematic Functional Linguistics

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