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摘 要 本研究旨在建構治理互賴理論模型,用以說明台灣產業公會與政府在職能上的互動關係,並進一步探索在此一互動模式下產業公會的政策執行(policy implementation)效果,最後經由研究發現,建立實地理論。 本研究就章節安排而言,第一章是緒論,第二章與第三章分別探討本研究的兩個研究對象:「政府機關」與「產業公會」的理論與變遷。第四章與第五章分別介紹政府機關與產業公會彼此運作的影響。第六章提出全觀性整合型治理互賴理論模型建構。其主要特質是將政府部門與公民社會等量齊觀,透過對產業公會制度性的安排,與政府部門組成有效的治理結構,落實對產業政策的制定與執行。對政府機關而言,它必須要加強其基礎建構能力,也就是滲入產業的能力、萃取資源的能力、以及與產業公會協議的能力;就產業公會而言,它必須要加強培育其治理能力,也就是支撐政策的能力、倡導議題的能力、以及與產業環境互動的回饋能力。如此有助於政策目標的凝聚,減少協調的困難,增強彼此資源的交流與相互授能,以發揮合超(synergy)的效應,達到改善產業政策品質,提升政府的行政績效以及產業公會的服務能力。使產業公會成為業者最好的業務幫手,政府最佳的工作夥伴。第七章就治理互賴理論的實踐,也就是實務面提出看法。在針對產業公會內、外環境進行S.W.O.T分析之後,我們以派深思(Talcott Parsons)「行動體系」理論為分析模式,進一步提出實踐策略,並透過「個案分析」的方式,探討我國產業公會的實務運作,從組織功能面的瞭解,進而探究政府與產業公會之間的關係,用以檢視治理互賴模式的理論價值,並藉以發現現行制度的缺失與問題,最後於第八章提出研究發現與建議。 本研究主要係在觀察「產業公會」與「政府機關」之間的關係,並將產業政策的執行效果當成依變項(dependent variable),透過兩者在「自主性」與「功能性」兩個中介變項(intervening variable)的觀察,我們發現兩者既聯合而又複雜的行動意涵,也就是所謂的「自主性槓桿原理」(Autonomic Leverage)與「功能性槓桿原理」(Functional Leverage)。透過前者我們可以觀察從威權體制到公民社會,政府與公會自主性的消長情形;透過後者我們亦可觀察在「政府採購法」實施前、實施後以及如果落實治理互賴之後,政府與公會功能的消長關係。本論文最大的發現與貢獻,厥為以治理互賴模型檢驗出台灣政府機關與產業公會之間的互動問題,為現今台灣經濟發展由盛而衰提出反證。面對台灣產業的發展困境,我們亦試從「治理互賴理論」的角度,對產業公會提出延伸性的「果樹理論」(“The Fruit Tree Theory”)與「風箏原理」(“The Principle of Kite”),並進而提出多項標本兼治的改造建議,以作為政府部門與產業公會改進時之參考。
The functional interactions between the industry associations and the government in Taiwan-- a study based on the construction of a model of governance mutual-dependence theory ABSTRACT This study aims to establish a model for governance mutual-dependence theory in order to explicate the functional interactions between the government and industry associations in Taiwan. Furthermore, it intends to examine the effectiveness of industry associations’ policy implementation based on this model. Finally, through the research findings provided in this study, grounded theories pertinent to this subject matter will be established. Chapters in this study are arranged as the following: the First Chapter provides an introduction to the study; the Second Chapter explores theories and shifting views on the subject of “government functions.” The Third Chapter discusses theories on the role of “professional associations” and the revolutionary progression of those theories. The Fourth Chapter introduces the effects of governmental functions on the operations of industry associations. In Chapter Five, we wish to present the effects of industry associations on governmental functions. In Chapter Six, an integrated framework for the governance mutual-dependence model is proposed. The major attribute of this model is to view as equal governmental agencies and the civic society; hence, by ways of institutionally organizing industry associations to form a joint governing body with governmental agencies, the formation and implementation of industrial polices can be realized. To governmental agencies, they must strengthen basic infrastructure capabilities—namely, their abilities to penetrate industries, extract resources, and negotiate with industrial associations. To industry associations, they must strengthen and develop their own governing capabilities—including their abilities to support policies, to promote relevant issues, and to provide feedback drawn from interactive engagements within the industrial environment. By so doing, it is conducive to consolidate policy objectives, minimize negotiation difficulties, and reinforce resource exchange and reciprocity, in order to achieve synergetic effects—to improve the quality of industrial policies, elevate government’s administrative effectiveness and industry associations’ service capabilities. Operating from the principle of “seeking common grounds among differences” and by adopting new approaches to search for possible solutions, as well as through concerted actions and collective efforts, difficulties and problems confronting industries may be resolved. Consequently, the industry associations may become the most helpful business support to the industry operators and the best partner to the government. The Seventh Chapter addresses the effectuation of the theory on governance mutual-dependence. Finally, The Eighth Chapter proposes some important findings and suggestions or recommendations. This study focuses on making empirical observations on the relations between “industry associations” and “governmental agencies.” In addition, it posits the implementation effects of industry policies as a dependent variable. By making observations on the two intervening variables—autonomy and functionality—we have established that the industry associations and governmental agencies engage in combinational yet complex interactions: that of “autonomic leverage” and “functional leverage.” Through the former, observations can be made with regard to the phenomenon that as the authoritarian system is replaced by a civic society, the government and the industry associations automatically experiences growth and decline of the relative strength. Through the latter, we can then observe the growth and decline of the functions of government and industry associations before and after the enactment of the “Government Procurement Act”, as well as after the implementation of dependent governance. The most significant discovery and contribution of this study is derived from utilizing the governance mutual-dependence theory to examine inherent problems in the interactions between Taiwan’s governmental agencies and industry associations. Furthermore, this study attempts to provide countervailing evidence to the view that Taiwan economy has gone from growth to decline, and that the relationship between the governmental agencies and industry associations has weakened as a result of the government’s dismissal of the function and importance of industry associations—particularly, the current funding level for departments and agencies that provide guidance now reduced to nil, resulting in personnel layoffs, is one of the main structural factors that has weakened the industry associations’ organizational functions and caused the economic indexes to fall. Confronted by the hardship of Taiwan’s industries have experienced in its development, we have also attempted to propose “the Fruit Tree Theory” and “the Principle of Kite”—an extension from the broader perspective of “the Governance Mutual-independence Theory.” Finally, we wish to propose comprehensive solutions for future reforms that can serve as a reference to governmental agencies and industry associations. Key words:governance , mutual-dependence ,industry associations, civic society, citizen participation



治理, 互賴, 產業公會, 公民社會, 公民參與, governance, mutual-dependence, industry associations, civic society, citizen participation