運用大數據探究臺灣新聞媒體之框架-以2020年美國總統選舉議題為例

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2021

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美國在全球一直以來具有舉足輕重之影響力,對於臺灣而言更是如此,尤其近年來美國與中國間抗爭加劇,使得美國對於臺灣之態度與政策更顯得重要,因而2020年美國總統選舉更是受到臺灣民眾與臺灣媒體的矚目。但是,過去媒體相關之研究指出不同新聞媒體間,經常會受到媒體利益或立場影響,進而產生出具差異性之論述。因此,本研究欲探討《TVBS 新聞網》、《三立新聞網》、《ETtoday 新聞雲》、《東森新聞》、《蘋果新聞網》、《聯合新聞網》與《自由時報》等七家網路新聞媒體,對於2020年美國總統選舉共35,991 則報導。透過大數據分析取徑針對文本進行探究,藉由時間序列分析、詞頻分析與TF-IDF分析探討文本內容,並同時以Google BERT模型將文本分類為「賽局框架」、「策略框架」、「問題框架」、「中臺關係框架」和「與選舉無關」五個類目。最終研究結果顯示,針對報導趨勢上七家媒體間並無差異,但是在詞頻分析、TF-IDF分析與框架分析中,顯示出媒體立場傾向於反中或親綠之媒體《三立新聞網》、《蘋果新聞網》與《自由時報》在報導中,經常描述與中國或臺灣相關之內容,並且用詞也與親中或親藍之媒體具有差異性。反之,媒體立場傾向於親中或親藍之媒體《聯合新聞網》、《TVBS 新聞網》與《東森新聞》則會偏向於淡化美國總統選舉與與中國或臺灣相關之內容。《ETtoday 新聞雲》雖然在詞頻分析中發現與其他親中或親藍媒體一樣,經常使用「大陸」與「新冠」一詞,不過在報導框架中則沒有特別傾向。整體而言,七家臺灣主流網路媒體中,對於2020年美國總統選舉報導的呈現上,仍呈現出媒體立場造成報導內容差異之現象。
United States has influence in the world all the time, especially for Taiwan. In recent years, the fight between the United States and China has intensified, making the United States' attitude and policy toward Taiwan more important. Therefore, the 2020 U.S. presidential election has attracted the attention of people and news media in Taiwan. However, previous studies of media indicate that the media coverages are often affect by media’s interests or attitudes. Therefore, this study analyzes 35,991 reports on the 2020 US presidential election from seven news media outlets including TVBS News online, SETN News online, ETtoday News online, EBC News online, Apple News online,UDN News online and LTN News online. This study analyzes the news through big data analysis and explore the news through time series analysis, word frequency analysis, TF-IDF analysis, and uses the Google BERT model to classify the news framework into"game framework", "strategic framework", "issue framework", "China-Taiwan relationship framework" and "not related to elections". The results of analysis indicate that news from seven media outlets is no difference in trends, but word frequency analysis, TF-IDF analysis and framework analysis indicate that media's stance tends to be anti-Chinese or DPP party media, SETN News online, Apple News online and LTN News online often describe content related to China or Taiwan, and the terms are also related to pro-China or DPP party media is different. In contrast to TVBS News online, EBC News online and UDN News online tend to downplay the US presidential election and content related to China or Taiwan. ETtoday News online found in its word frequency analysis that, like other pro-Chinese or KMT, it often uses the terms"Mainland" and "New Crown", but There is no particular tendency in the news framework. Broadly speaking, among the seven mainstream online media outlets in Taiwan, regarding the presentation of the 2020 U.S. presidential election reports, they still show that the media stance will cause differences news contents.

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媒體偏差, 新聞框架, 議題設定, 文字探勘, 大數據分析, media bias, news framework, agenda setting, text mining, big data analysis

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