台北都會區衛星市鎮集合住宅社區意識的特性—以新店市長春里為例

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2010

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本研究以台北都會區發展為背景,探討衛星市鎮區集合住宅社區意識的特性,並以台北縣新店市長春里為例,暸解長春里集合住宅社區的形成過程為何?各社區間的社區社會互動,有何種特徵?各社區居民的社區意識,具有何種特性?並透過資料蒐集、問卷訪查,使用SPSS12.0版統計軟體,進行資料統計及描述性分析,以瞭解兩個不同空間層級(單一社區內及全里)的社區社會互動、社會關係及社區意識的特性之差異,藉此對位於台北都會區郊區之較封閉集合住宅的社區意識做理解: 一、影響社區居民遷入主要因素:由文獻資料與問卷調查得知居民的人口增加主因為社會增加,來源地以台北都會區(新店市、台北市、台北縣)佔最多,從空間分布發現居民原居地以台北市最高,反映的是台北都會的郊區化過程;戶籍登記在新店市長春里佔最高;戶籍未遷入新店市的原因,以子女教育問題為最多及新店市的資源欠佳;遷離原居地的動機依序為以出售原住宅為主,而吸引遷入的主要拉力是長春里居住環境較優。顯見新店市的資源或許不如預期,但是戶籍在新店市的比例極高,應該是居住環境較優,而吸引新婚夫妻購置新屋搬入本里社區居住的主要因素。 二、社會關係方面:長春里社區居民主要來自各地,謀生活動以第三級產業為主,在社區營造的工作方面,應該要透過人與人的相互瞭解,人與土地之間感情的建立,從認識自己居住的社區出發,因此可藉由社區發展協會、社區鄰里工作室,瞭解自己社區的歷史根源與地理位置,有助於人們對社區產生情感,但透過實察發現缺乏社區發展協會及的社區鄰里工作室等組織。各社區因常舉辦各種社區活動與處理社區內日常生活大小事物,所以社區內部居民互動頻繁,社會關係緊密;相對的在長春里各社區間,因為全里的活動較少舉辦,各社區間的互動就顯鬆散,社會關係相對疏離。 三、社區自主性方面:長春里各社區住戶的住宅大多屬於自有,故住戶參與社區住戶大會的比例也很高,且大部分參與社區住戶大會最主要目的,都是以關心社區公共事務、維護自己權益為主,住戶認為社區決策應該由社區住戶制定,因此住戶本身就是擬定社區決策的主體。而擔任社區管理委員會的相關工作職務,通常還是以選舉產生為主。但值得注意的是,這並不意味社區住戶對於自主決策的制定有一定的認識,仍有近三分之一的長春里社區住戶,對於自我決策的過程並不是清楚地了解。此外,可發現各社區內的自主性透過每年住戶大會的召開、各社區管理委員會的執行等機制運作,在社區的自主決策、對管理內容的期待、自主管理成效三個層面部份,社區內的自主性較強;相對的在全里的自主性部份,因為里長表示在任內從未召開里民大會,所以全里的自主決策、自主管理,幾乎由里長決定發展方向,里民無法參與,故全里的自主性較弱。 四、社區意識方面:社區內的居民因為管委會常舉辦各種社區活動,與處理社區內日常生活大小事物,因此社區內部居民互動頻繁且主動,社會關係緊密,而社區內的自主性也較強,故社區意識顯著。全里里民對長春里認同感程度不低,皆有達到七成,但社區間活動的參與程度並不高,原因是全里社區間,較少舉辦活動,資源也無法分享;各社區間平時為了本身的權益,必定據理以爭,全里的共同意識的呈現,只有在突發事件,危及到里民共同權益時,各社區才會放棄本位主義,追求共同利益,社區意識的凝聚呈現相對被動形塑的過程;因此各社區間的互動就顯鬆散而被動,社會關係相對疏離,全里的自主性較弱,故全里社區意識較不明顯。
This research is a study on the charateristics of a satellite town residential community. Base on a higher population density in Taipei metropolitan development area as the background, and then set Changchun, Hsin Tien, Taipei County, where, for example, to understand what is the formation of a suburban residential community. How is the social interaction between communities? And what are the characteristics? Through data collection, questionnaire visits, with a combination of using SPSS12.0 version of statistical software for data analysis and descriptive statistics to understand the two different spatial levels (a single community, and the whole neighborhood). 1.Major factor affecting residents moving into the community: From the literature survey that the residents with the population increase in the primary because the community, places of origin in the Taipei metropolitan area (Hsin-Tien, Taipei City, Taipei County) accounted for the largest find from the spatial distribution of population in Taipei City, the highest place of origin, reflecting the Taipei's city suburbanization process; residence registration was highest in the Changchun, Hsin-Tien. The main reason of resident not moving to Hsin-Tien is children's education with poor resources. Residents moving away from their places of origin in accordance with the motivation for selling of the original main house, while the move to attract a major rally is a better living environment. Perhaps Hsin- Tien resources are worse than expected, but the high proportion of household registration in the Hsin-Tien, should be a better living environment, while attracting newly married couple living in the community. 2.Social relations: Changchun residents come from all over Taiwan, and mainly work as a third-class industry. Social relations should be build up via mutual understanding between people, between the loving and the establishment of the land. Through the help of Community Development Associations and Community and Neighborhood Workshops enable one to understand the historical roots of their own communities and geographical location. These actions will help resident to build up a community-generated emotions. But the real findings shown a lack of Community Development Associations and Community and Neighborhood Workshops. The communities were often holds a variety of community activities with close interations and relationship. Relatively in Changchun, where the various communities has a lower level of activity, turns out looser social relationship. 3.Community empowerment: Changchun residents are mostly owned their homes, therefore a high proportion of households participating in the General Assembly, the main aim of participating is to care about the community in public affairs, protecting their own rights-based. Community decision-making should be developed by community residents, so residents develop the community itself is the main decision maker. Acting as a community management committees, usually selected by elections. But it does not mean that communities have own awareness on decision making , there are still nearly one third of residents are not clearly understood for self-decision-making process is. In addition, communities can through the annual convocation meeting, the community management meeting and other mechanisms to implement the operation of decision-making in the community. For the decision making in communities, the content of management's expectations and the effectiveness of self-management in the community, are three strong aspects for community. Compare with Changchun borough, there is no meeting held for residents, so the whole decision-making and self-management are almost from one person to determine the direction of development, neighborhood unable to participate, so the autonomy of the residents are weak. 4.Community Awareness:The residents within the community often holds a variety of activities, and also deal with lots of things in everyday life, therefore, the interaction within the community are close to each other, and the autonomy of the community is also strong. It is remarkable for the sense of community . The neighborhood identity in Changchun is not low and up to 70%, but the participation rate was not high in activities, because the whole neighborhood communities are less to organize activities, and unable to share resources. In order for community to keep their own interests, residents will dispute on common issues. But for the residents in borough, only in emergencies and threatening to their own interest, then residents will give up selfishness and to pursuit of common interests. The sense of community cohesion is passive; so the interaction between the various communities are loosen as well as social relations. Therefore the whole neighborhood's autonomy is weak, and sense of community are alos not sigificient.

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集合式住宅, 社區意識, 長春里

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