日治初期桃園台地族群於埤塘及相關土地利用之比較

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2016

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Abstract

  桃園台地長久以「千埤之鄉」聞名。關於埤塘這樣的文化景觀,不僅呈現自然環境的特性,更是先民發揮社會組織的力量以運用自然資源的成果。又,以往桃園台地上的客家方言群移民,由於「原鄉生活」與「先來後到」等因素,往往被認為擅長利用山區、丘陵這類水資源缺乏的環境。然而,以上這些因素,是否確實造成桃園台地福佬及客家方言群移民在埤塘與相關土地利用上的差異?   本文擬從桃園台地的埤塘並非均質之角度出發,嘗試檢視過往福佬及客家方言群所塑造的埤塘特性。本文在研究方法上偏向歷史地理與人地關係,並嘗試結合地理資訊系統(GIS)。首先,透過地理資訊系統,以日治時期的臺灣堡圖做為桃園台地福佬及客家方言群土地利用的基本依據;接著,再利用日治時期的收穫調查書等史料相互比對;最後,進行實地訪談,進而與數據、史料交叉印證。   整體而言,就桃園台地全區來看,客家方言群移民的埤塘主要分布在較高海拔。但若透過環境更均質的分區與小區比對,便可發現在類似的受限制環境中,福佬及客家方言群皆會依環境條件去挖築埤塘,而所形塑的埤塘特性則是類似的。透過實地訪查,亦可發現當地居民大體認知到:無論哪個方言群,埤塘皆因灌溉需求而設置。然而,若再進一步就土地生產力來看,除了先天自然環境因素之外,大地主、土地買賣、追逐利潤等人文因素,亦影響桃園台地的埤塘及相關土地利用。   綜言之,本研究認為桃園台地上的福佬及客家方言群移民在埤塘特性及土地利用上之差異並不顯著,蓋因方言群移民間的交流頻繁、貿易盛行等因素,使得彼此的生活方式、埤塘挖築技術漸趨一致;雖然各方言群或多或少保留著自己的特性,但原生的生活方式或是地方性卻是漸趨模糊。
The research is about the difference of landuse on Taoyuan Plateau between Holo and Hakka dialect groups in the early Period of Japanese Colonial Rule, and especially focus on the features of irrigation ponds. Due to the viewpoint of “discourse about time of Quan, Zhang and Hakka people come to Taiwan” (先來後到)and “discourse about lifestyle of Quan, Zhang and Hakka people in original country”(原鄉生活論),the Hakka dialect groups is ofthen regards as the people who is mostly living near mountain and hill area and is good at solving the problem of irrigation. In order to realize the defference of irrigation ponds and related landuse between Holo and Hakka dialect groups in the early Period of Japanese Colonial Rule , this research is based on the research methods of Historical Geography and Man-land Relationship. Besides, this reasearch used GIS to collect and analyzethe basic data of Taiwan Map(1898~1904)and harvest information for observing the defference between Holo and Hakka dialect groups for their irrigation ponds and related landuse. By the results of this research we found that within the place of Taoyuan Plateau the irrigation ponds of hakka dialect groups mostly located at high elevation. However, when within the partition of Taoyuan Plateau, the distribution of Holo and Hakka dialect groups’ irrigation ponds isn’t consistent with the viewpoint of “discourse about time of Quan, Zhang and Hakka people come to Taiwan”. And according to the conditions of the natural environment, the irrigation ponds built by Holo and Hakka dialect groups have similar features. To sum up, the reason why the irrigation ponds of the dialect groups have similar features are following: at first, the irrigation ponds were built for meeting the needs of irrigation which is the same between Holo and Hakka dialect groups. And the skill of building irrigation ponds became more similar for the interaction and trade of people. As a result,the difference of lifestyle between Holo and Hakka dialect groups became increasingly similar.

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桃園台地, 埤塘, 福佬及客家方言群, 地理資訊系統(GIS), 人地關係, Taoyuan Plateau, Irrigation ponds, Holo and Hakka dialect groups, GIS, Man-land Relationship

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