社會取向成就動機、壓力與因應之質性研究:以台灣優秀跆拳道選手為例

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2016

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本研究旨在瞭解台灣優秀跆拳道選手之社會取向成就動機的內涵與影響、社會取向成就動機的動力與壓力之轉換因素、以及壓力因應與策略。本研究以半結構式訪談法蒐集8位參與者的競技生涯經驗,並以紮根理論分析資料。 主要研究結果如下: 一、社會取向成就動機由「想要回報榮耀對象」、「想向他人證明自己或組織的實力」、「與組織有榮耀一體感」組成。「想要回報榮耀對象」意義在於回報他人曾經的好意與協助;「想向他人證明自己或組織的實力」之意義是想要被他人看見與被他人認同;「與組織有榮耀一體感」的意義是共享榮耀。 二、社會取向成就動機對選手的影響,包括「使競技生涯更堅持」、「影響競技生涯的目標設定」、「使練習中更認真與積極」、「在比賽關鍵時刻振作」、「備戰期中感受到擔心與壓力」、「賽前想太多使睡眠受影響」。 三、選手從社會取向成就動機引起的壓力變動力的關鍵原因,有「反復練習」、「自我信心喊話,增加自信」、「奮力專注,想向他人證明自己」、「在調整期受到教練的鼓勵」、「獲得他人理解」。 四:選手從社會取向成就動機引起的動力變壓力的關鍵原因,有「高自我要求與標準」、「對比賽結果得失心重」、「在乎別人的評價、看法與情緒」、「累積競技成就後,自我要求變高,不允許失敗」、「重要他人觀賽與否的干擾」。 五、選手採取之壓力因應與策略,有「與壓力共存」、「透過轉移注意力,阻斷壓力感,讓心理放鬆」、「自我檢視,問題解決」、「專注」、「線索暗示策略」、「情緒釋放」、「對自我與環境瞭解」、「透過社會比較減低壓力知覺」、「換位思考」、「連結外在關係資源」、「信仰」。 根據以上結果,本研究提出以下結論: 一、社會 取向成就動機 對個體 具積極與消影響。 二、社會取向成就動機壓力與動力之間的關鍵在於「掌控感」,當個體聚焦在內控目標時,有利於其掌控感的增加,使壓力變成動力;而當個體聚焦在外控目標時,則會使掌控感減少,使動力變成壓力。此外,「個體詮釋」影響個體對於他人反應的解讀,而使其驅力變成動力或壓力。 三、依據個體使用內外資源以因應壓力的狀況,分為「使用個人內在資源因應與調節壓力」、「合併使用外在刺激與個人內在資源以因應與調節壓力」、「使用外在資源因應與調節壓力」。個體對於內外狀態與資源的覺察與瞭解,會影響其壓力因應的彈性與效果。 最後,研究者整理上述的結果與討論,歸納出對選手、教練、家長、心理實務工作者建議,並討論本研究的限制與未來可能的研究方向。
This study aims to understand the outstanding Taiwanese Taekwondo athletes’ connotations and influences of social oriented achievement motivation (SOAM), the dynamic exchange between stress and motivation that triggered by SOAM, and the coping strategies of social-oriented stress. Eight participants were interviewed on their athletic career experience in the present study using semi-structured interview. Collected data were then analyzed using grounded-theory methodology. Main findings of the study are as the following: First, SOAM consists of “to repay with glory”, “to prove oneself or organization’s competencies” and “sense of belongingness with organization”. The meaning of “to repay with glory” lies in repaying the goodness and kind assistance that have been given, while the meaning of “to prove oneself or organization’s competencies” lies in hoping to be seen and recognized by others. In addition, the meaning of “sense of belongingness with organization” lies in sharing the glory together with others. Second, the SOAM has influenced the participants in the following ways: “became more persistent in athletics career”, “impacted goal setting in their athletics career”, “became more serious and diligent in practice”, “to be cheered up at the critical moment of competition”, “feeling of pressure and worries during preparation” and “poor sleep due to too much worries before competition”. Third, the key factors of transforming stress to motivation include: “repeated practice”, “positive self-talk to increase confidence”, “be extremely focused, to prove oneself to others”, “encouraged by couch during transition period”, and “being understood by others”. Fourth, the key factors of transforming motivation to stress include: “high self-requirements”, “the mind of gain and loss on competation result”, “Too care about others’ critiques, perception and emotions”, “high self-requirements and not allow loss after gain accomplishment”, “distracted by significant others who watch the game”. Fifth, the coping strategies of social oriented stress take in “living with stress”, “relax by distracting self to block the feeling of pressure”, “self-assessment and problem solving”, “focused”, “clue suggestion strategy”, “emotional release”, “understanding self and environment”, “reduce perceived stress through social comparison”, “perspective taking”, “connect to externalrelational resources” and “spiritual”. Based on the above results, the present study concluded that: 1. Social oriented achievement motivation has both positive and negative influences on individuals. 2. Sense of control is the key factor between stress and motivation of social oriented achievement motivation. When individuals focused on internally-controlled goals, it increases the sense of control, and hence stress was transformed into motivation. Conversely, when individuals focused on externally-controlled goals, the sense of control reduced, and may cause motivation become stress. Besides, “personal’s view” influences how individuals interpret others’ responses, and determined whether the forces are stress or motivation. 3. Individuals’ tress coping and regulation strategies were categorized into “employing internal resources”, “combined both internal and external resources” and “employing external resources”. Finally, findings and results of the present study were discussed. The researcher also presents some recommendations for athletics, coaches, parents and psychological practitioners. Limitations of present study and recommendations for future research were included.

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社會取向成就動機, 優秀運動員, 壓力, 動力, 壓力因應, Social oriented achievement motivation, Elite athletics, Motivation, Stress, Stress coping

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