以協作治理觀點檢視地方創生:水金九地區地質環境資源之例

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2022

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水湳洞、金瓜石、九份地區,合稱水金九地區,有豐富的地質環境資源,造就許多特殊的地景,使其在歷史中曾是繁華的礦業小鎮。從清領時期發現金礦一直到日治時期積極發展礦產事業,人文活動活絡;在人與地的互動中,形成今日特殊的地方發展現象。隨著經濟發展,礦業開採因不符成本而結束,在水金九地區的權益關係人努力下,重整礦業歷史以積極設立水金九地質公園。本文旨在探究水金九地區與社群如何以地質環境資源作為永續發展的媒 介,以「協作治理」觀點置入與探討人與地的互動關係與過程;研究所採「協 作治理」概念,沿用 Ansell& Gash (2007) 的協作治理,論述協作對於地方型塑 的重要性。再者,本文以地方創生架構,闡述水金九地方發展如何展現價值, 讓資源生生不息。研究方法為文獻分析法及深度訪談法,目的有三項:(1) 彙 整探究水金九環境發展之背景;(2) 以協作治理理論分析水金九社區營造之脈 絡與特徵;(3) 在水金九環境資源背景下,研擬提出協作治理觀點的水金九地 質環境資源創生策略。 研究結果顯示,第一、建立在豐富地質資源基礎之下,水金九在地人始運用在地礦業歷史與環境資源發展地方經濟,在人地交互作用過程中建構地方價值及特殊性;第二、水金九區域社區自治力及凝聚力堅固,已然逐步落實新治理概念;第三、水金九地質公園的設立是地方善用自身環境資源,以振興地方發展,是協作的重要媒介;第四、水金九地質公園的協作面臨課責問題,當設立地質公園是由權益關係人一起參與規劃、決策時,非由公部門單方決定,則共同課責成了協作的重要部分,在地的協商對話即為課責的關鍵。
ShuiNanDong, JinGuaShi and JiuFen, are collectively dubbed as the Shui-Jin-Jiou area, where abundant geological resources were the base for its unique landscapes. When gold was first discovered in the Qing dynasty and the Japanese colonial government was active in mining industry, the economy of Shui-Jin-Jiou area was once prosperous. The local man-land interaction formed the base for the unique place. With the no longer cost-effective mining industry, the area faces changes in many ways. The stakeholders of the area have managed to organize local associations to take part in recognizing its glorious past and to revitalize it by establishing Shui-Jin- Jiou geo-park to conserve local landscapes.This thesis aims at examining how the area’s communities use “collaborative governance” in the local social milieu to revitalize the local society and economy with its geo-environmental resources. Collaborative governance is critical for a bottom-up regional revitalization. With research methods of document analysis and in-depth interviews, this thesis has three purposes: (1) to inventory the historical and geological geography of the region as a background for the study; (2) to analyze the context of Shui-Jin-Jiou community building in collaborative governance perspective; and (3) to propose a strategy of revitalizing the geological and ecological resources for Shui-Jin-Jiou sustainable community development in light of collaborative governance.The research result shows that with abundant geologival resources, the locals started to utilize its mining history and geo-environmental resource to revitalize the regional economies. Secondly, people and communities of the area have relatively firm connection and community autonomy, and have gradually realized the concept of collaborative governance and its application in their social activities. Third, the Shui-Jin-Jiou geopark was founded to utilize its geo-environmental resources to revitalize the local communities. Lastly, Shui-Jin-Jiou geopark’s communities face the issue of accountability all together as collective and collaborative deeds taken. When people found the geopark associate with various stakeholders and have to make decisions together, not solely by the official agency of government, responsibility allocation and accountability become a crucial part of collaboration, and the key to it is negotiating and engaging among one another.

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協作治理, 地方創生, 水金九地區, 權益關係人, 地質公園, Collaborative governance, Regional revitalization, Shui-Jin-Jiou area, Stakeholder, Geopark

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