葛利格《抒情小品集》--以十二首選曲探討

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2012

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  十九世紀,國民樂派的挪威作曲家愛德華‧葛利格(Edvard Grieg, 1843-1907)深入民間,探尋挪威本土音樂元素,並融入創作的音樂之中。   葛利格一生創作許多鋼琴小品,《抒情小品集》(Lyric Pieces)正是他花了三十七年創作並出版完成的鋼琴作品,一共十冊,包含六十六首個性小品,大多篇幅短小,每首均附標題,屬於「廣義的」標題音樂。葛利格將個人生活見聞、挪威自然之美等融入標題中,並運用挪威舞曲節奏、民間樂器──哈當格提琴的共鳴聲響及民謠中升四音的特徵音……等音樂元素,來營造音樂中的「挪威風格」。   《抒情小品集》中除挪威風格外,還存在著其他風格。其他風格的形成和葛利格在德國萊比錫音樂院求學期間,受舒曼及蕭邦的個性小品影響有關,以及中年從法國巴黎的音樂氛圍中得到的靈感,對和聲產生初探。另外,還有一些對具體事物的摹擬,如:鳥兒跳躍與鳴叫,饒富趣味。   透過對《抒情小品集》中樂曲標題及風格的研究,演奏者在詮釋挪威民間舞曲時需選擇適切的速度,強調該舞曲的節奏特色,與較戲劇性的力度對比;彈奏挪威風格較不明顯的樂曲時,則可表達其純真、抒情、詩意的本質,使用較柔和優美的音色,以期貼近作曲家的原創精神。
  Edvard Grieg (1843-1907), the nationalist Norwegian composer in 19th century, explored the Norwegian folk music, and was fond of composing with the folk music elements.   Grieg composed many piano pieces through his whole life. It cost him 37 years to complete ten volumes of Lyric Pieces, a large collection of small pieces. There are 66 character pieces in all, each one has its own title. They all belong to the broad-based definition of program music. We can see Grieg’s experience in his life and the charming scenes in Norway from these titles. The music language in Lyric Pieces was naturally colored by the rhythm of Norwegian dances, folk instrument, e.g. the typical drone effects of Hardanger fiddle, the sharpened fourth, etc. This is what the writer called“Norwegian style.”   “The other style” in Lyric Pieces was mostly formed by Grieg’s student years in Leipzig Conservatory. At that time, character pieces composed by R. Schumann(1810-1856) and F. Chopin (1810-1849) had great influences on Grieg. In his middle-age, Grieg found a different and free atmosphere in French, which encouraged him to discover the possibilities of harmony in piano music. Besides, Grieg was good at describing, like the jumps and sounds of birds, were showed in Lyric Pieces.   After researching on the titles and styles in Lyric Pieces, a pianist should choose an appropriate tempo, emphasize the accents, rhythm, and dramatic dynamics when playing Norwegian folk dances. While playing the pieces in the other style, just try to express the essence of naiveté, lyricism, and poetry, and play them in a soft touch. Then we can get closer to the spirit and thought of the composer.

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葛利格, 抒情小品集, 挪威風格, 標題音樂, Edvard Grieg, Lyric Pieces, Norwegian style, program music

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