清代明志書院研究

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2004

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清領臺灣二百一十二年間(1684-1895),書院教育不斷發展,對於地方人才的培養、社會的教化與文化的傳遞等皆有重要的作用與貢獻,有助臺灣社會的發展。在體制上,清代臺灣書院教育的制度、活動,多與大陸內地相仿,惟配合臺灣的社會發展,見證移民社會的文質化過程。 本研究以歷史研究法為主,資料兼及自官方文獻、方志、文獻及今人論著等。在性質上屬於個案研究,對於清代臺灣明志書院與移民社會文質化的關係進行探討。研究主要發現如下: 一、書院教育為清代臺灣的主要教育機構:由於清代臺灣屬一移墾社會,重商及重視科名為其特色,而書院為地方士子準備應舉之所,對於地方其他文教發展亦有貢獻,在地方儒學未興之前,而其他教育設施(義學、社學等)規模不大時,書院擔負起地方教育的重責,明志書院即扮演相似角色。 二、書院性質的轉變與官方態度有關:明志書院乃是北臺第一所書院,建立之初為義學性質,遷校至竹塹發展後性質則為清代臺灣普遍的考課式書院,其因與官方的介入書院的創建、遷移、改建和發展有密切關係。 三、地方人士影響書院發展甚多:官學化和科舉化為清代臺灣書院教育的特色,一來由於社會追求科名風氣盛行,再者,因官方對地方文教機構的維持皆採積極態度,故多與地方有力家族合作,以維持書院運作。而參與書院的教育活動也為地方仕紳的重要社會事業之一,如移民社會墾首的主導,文質社會,地方仕紳參與,皆可看出地方人士對書院的貢獻,此乃臺灣書院的普遍情形,從明志書院的發展亦得到印證。 四、書院的創建提升地方科舉成就:明志書院建立後,淡北中舉士子的數量增多,不僅逐朝增加,甚至超過同時臺灣其他地區的發展。中舉士子以士紳身份投入地方各項活動,與教育相關的各項事功亦多,甚至於日治後負責漢文教育的機構是地方私塾、書房,使得竹塹地區的私塾數量冠於全臺。 五、書院的發展促進文風:竹塹成為清代北臺灣文風最盛之所,與明志書院的建立不無關係。由於詩文社發展為書院的情形臺灣有之,可見書院和詩文社在程度上有類似的教育功能,透過竹塹地方詩文社的發展及詩文集的蓬勃可看出。再者,透過清代竹塹文人的交遊網絡,發現竹塹地區文人以明志書院為中心之集體性。竹塹文學即是在如此文教背景中發展,成就斐然,而移居他地的竹塹文人也善盡推展文風之職。 總之,明志書院的創建到發展,「人」的因素最為關鍵。無論是建立者的倡議、地方官員的積極介入、地方仕紳的發揚維持,皆為書院與地域的權力結構有關,明志書院作為清代北臺一重要教育機構,歷經性質轉變、內部教育運作與外部權力介入,展現豐富而多元的樣貌,對北臺文教發展影響甚巨。
In Ching Taiwan (1684-1895), the academy education expanded gradually . There are important function and contribution for local talent education, social edification and cultural inheritance. According to the regulations, the institutions and activities of the academy education in Ching Taiwan were similar with those of main land. This study is historical research, and official documents and local gazetteers are used. Min-zhi Academy in the northern Taiwan is chosen as the case for study. The main findings are as follows: 1. Academies became the major educational institutions in Ching Taiwan: because the state schools developed slowly. Before the local clan schools and charity schools developed, academies took the main responsibilities for the local education. 2. Min-zhi Academy was the first academy in the north Taiwan. In the beginning, it was established as a charity school by Zhuo-yo Hu. But when it was moved to Hsinchu, which nature was changed into a public school for preparing imperial examination. 3. To be nationalized and to prepare imperial examination became the main features of academy in Ching Taiwan. 4. The establishment of academy promoted the local achievement: after constructing Min-zhi Academy, students in the northern Taiwan succeeding in the imperial examination increased. Those exam winners involved in most of local activities with the status of gentry. And there are many contributions related to education. Even in the Japan ruling, they also preserved Chinese education by a way of crammer school and library. 5. This academy promoted the cultural development. It was proved by the development of poetry and literature at Hsinchu. Several poet societies were founded. And Min-zhi Academy became the center at Hsinchu To sum up, in the process of development of Minzhi Academy, the major influential factor was personal one. Local officials and gentry played the positive roles; Min-zhi Academy became an important educational institution in the northern Taiwan in Ching.

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明志書院, 竹塹, 胡焯猷, 清代臺灣, 臺灣書院, Min-zhi Academy, Hsinchu, Zhuo-yo Hu, Taiwan Academy, Ching Taiwan

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