臺灣采風文圖意象:清治時期風土文化形塑 Taiwan Imagery in Text and Image: Shaping Terroir Culture during Qing Ruling Period

Date
2021
Authors
曾麗玉
Tseng, Li-Yu
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Abstract
臺灣清治時期是臺灣歷史政權統治最長的一段時期,也是人文奠基的重要階段。本文以巡臺御史巡狩治臺的視角,主要探究清治初、中期的臺灣輿圖、與番社采風圖、以及臺灣方志所形塑的臺灣番社人物形象與風物景觀,並以臺灣風土與文化作為研究中心,探討風土如何影響民俗文化的形成與發展?民俗文化的形成是否只受到風土的影響?政治理念是否也影響著臺灣風俗文化的歸向?理想風俗可以透過什麼媒介來傳達?清治臺灣初、中期首先看重的是什麼?治理臺灣什麼是最具迫切性、需解決的問題?理想的政治藍圖是什麼?哪些番社特色文化具有普遍性?番社風俗圖再現番社特色文化,包含住禦、耕織、與捕獵採集文化,這些涉及巡狩所關注的風俗教化命題。有別於前行研究多從文字、歷史、帝國之眼、殖民論述、或「他者」等視角切入清治時期臺灣文化研究,本文詮釋與理解結合文圖以及時空軸做為基底,主要探究清治臺灣初、中期所形塑的臺灣風土文化,包含:一、風土文化與社會;二、風俗「歸化」圖像;三、住禦文化;四、耕種田園圖像,以瞭解土地與人民的關係,以及巡狩理念與風土如何影響臺灣文化的發展,以冀補充清治時期臺灣學知識並建構臺灣先後住民自我認同。
Taiwan’s Qing Dynasty was the longest period in Taiwan’s historical regime, and it was also an important stage to lay a humanistic foundation. From the perspective of Qing officials’ patrolling and monitoring Taiwan, this article mainly explores the appearance and connotation of Taiwan's terroir and culture from Taiwan maps, genre imagery of Taiwan's aboriginal peoples, and Taiwan Chronicles in the early and middle Qing ruling period. Taking Taiwan's terroir and culture as a research core, the following topics were discussed. How the terroir influences the formation and development of folk culture? Is the folk culture only affected by terroir? Do political ideas also affect the inclination of Taiwan's customs and culture? Through what medium can ideal customs be conveyed? What was the most important issue in the early and middle periods of Qing ruling in Taiwan? What is the most urgent problem to be solved in ruling Taiwan? What is the ideal political blueprint? Which indigenous genre cultures are universal? The Genre paintings of Taiwan’s aboriginal peoples represent the characteristic cultures of aboriginal communities, including the cultures of residence and defense, farming, weaving, hunting, and gathering. These are related to the custom-education, a focus of attention in patrolling and treating Taiwan. Different from previous studies being in the perspectives of text, history, empire's eye, colonial discourse, and “the other”, the interpretation of this research mainly combine text-and-image as well as a time-and-space axes as the base, focusing on the exploration of Taiwan's terroir and culture formed in the early and mid-term Qing Dynasty. It includes (1) ‘Terroir’ culture and society, (2) custom ‘enlightenment’ images, (3) residential and defense culture, and (4) farming and pastoral images. The purpose is to realize the relationship between the land and the people, andhow Taiwan's terrior and the ideas of patrolling and monitoring influence the development of Taiwanese culture. The Taiwanese knowledge in Qing Dynasty can thus be supplemented, and the self-identity be built in the earlier and later immigrants.
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Keywords
文圖學, 巡狩, 臺灣風土, 番社采風, 視覺圖像符碼, text and image studies, inspection tour, Taiwan terrior, genre imagery of Taiwan's aboriginal peoples, visual image code
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