臺灣偏鄉小學推動STEAM教育之經驗、策略與運作模式 Research on the Experiences, Strategies and Model of Implementing STEAM Education at the Rural Elementary Schools in Taiwan

Date
2021
Authors
呂玉環
LU, Yu-Huan
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Abstract
本研究旨在探討臺灣偏鄉小學推動STEAM教育經驗,分析臺灣偏鄉小學推動STEAM教育之策略與影響因素,並解析臺灣偏鄉小學推動STEAM教育之運作模式與課程發展歷程,同時反思臺灣實施STEAM教育實務經驗與理論差異之情形。本研究採取個案研究法為主,輔以調查研究法,進行兩階段正式研究。第一階段研究,針對參與國立臺灣科學教育館「愛迪生出發公益學習活動-到校服務扎根計畫」106學年度至109學年度22所小學之教師發放問卷,以瞭解教師進行跨領域教學情形、對STEAM教育理解程度以及STEAM教育推動經驗與意見。第二階段研究,透過訪談、觀察與文件檔案資料,探究臺南市左鎮區光榮實驗小學、彰化縣竹山鎮秀林國民小學與彰化縣芬園鄉同安國民小學等偏鄉三校推動STEAM跨領域專題課程經驗並進行分析。本研究發現如下:一、不同性別、教學年資、是否偏鄉與是否教授自然科學領域之教師,對於STEAM教育理解與實施情形無顯著差異。二、STEAM教育受「推動性」、「持續性」與「有效性」三大因素交互作用,以「外部催化」、「內外整合」「或內部激盪」等策略,有助於提升教師實施STEAM教育之意願。三、STEAM教學以「問題情境」為運作核心,形成「問題情境、學科整合、教學轉化、情境再創」之課程動發展態歷程。四、STEAM學習以學生日常生活經驗出發取代高科技設備,並依學習準備度給予學生嘗試錯誤探究機會而非按圖索驥。五、臺灣實施STEAM教育宜需強化藝術的人文性與整合性角色,結合學校在地元素與學生生活經驗,透過專家協同教學,採跨領域專題設計,以培養學生跨領域知識整合與應用的能力。
The aims of this study is to explore the experiences of implementing STEAM education at the rural elementary schools in Taiwan;to analyze the curriculum developing processes, implementing strategies and the model of STEAM education as well as influencing factors. Finally, this study presents the reflection of the relative issues.This study adopts case study approach, supplementing with questionnaire survey. At the first stage, an online survey was conducted among these teachers who participate in STEAM projects fund by National Taiwan Science Education Center, in order to gain information of STEAM projects.At the second stage, three case rural elementary schools were selected for field study, methods of interview, observation, and documents analysis. Analyzing on the data collected, the findings are as followings:1.There are no significant differences on the understanding and implementation of STEAM education among teachers of different genders, teaching experiences, whether they are from remote school or teaching science subject or not.2.The implementing STEAM education are influent by the driving factors of motivation, effectiveness and continuity as well as by use strategies such as external incentive, internal support and cooperation.3.Based on the core of problem solving, STEAM education involving in the processes of"problem situation, disciplinary integration, teaching transformation, and situation re-creation". 4.An idea STEAM learning experiences starts with students’ real life experiences instead of operating high-tech equipment, also it gives students the opportunities to try and errors instead of following operating menu step by step. 5.There is a need to STEAM education in Taiwan should emphasize the humanities and integration of art; and it’s also important to incorporated local resources and students’ life experiences into the STEAM projects; and as well as it’s necessary to adopt cross-disciplinary Project-based design through collaborative teaching to cultivating students' competencies and capacities.
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Keywords
STEAM教育, 探究與實作, 跨領域教學, 偏鄉小學, STEAM Education, cross-disciplinary, rural elementary schools, inquiry
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