內容導向教學法應用於《論語》課程設計之行動研究——以「仁」為主題

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2020

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孔子與《論語》在中國歷史上影響深遠,中國文化因其提出核心思想——「仁」而真正進入文化的自覺。作為中國文化的根基之一,而深深影響現代的華人社會。然而目前大學附設華語中心所開設之《論語》課程多針對高程度之 學生,教材也沒有統一性。當學生到達該程度時,已經錯失了很多學習《論語》及儒家文化的機會。又目前針對《論語》教學之研究,多建議以主題式課程與跨文化課程教授《論語》,但鮮少針對特定的教材與教學法進行分析與應用,針對《論語》課程缺乏系統性的規劃與應用。 針對上述的狀況,本研究以內容導向教學法中的重視主題教學的6T教學法作為研究重點,希望將6T教學法結合《論語》,設計一套以《論語》為主題之課程,並採用行動研究法,實際應用於教學中。希望透過三次教學行動循環,修正課程內容,並藉由專家訪談確認其課程與教學之可行性。同時透過課堂觀察、意見調查與專家教師訪談,統整分析《論語》基於內容導向6T理論實行在中級華語課程的情況,並提出問題調整與建議。藉此展現6T教學法針對《論語》課 程設計的應用性,以供目前缺乏教材與具有高度課程規劃彈性之教師參考。 透過問卷調查與訪問,研究結果顯示本課程受到專家與學生的肯定。而針對實際應用之狀況,本研究根據6T教學法的五大考量因素提出相對應可能發生之狀況,並基於觀察、調整與分析提出七點回應狀況與問題:(1)安排內容著重於思想架構與章句原文教授(2)進行學生興趣需求、任務偏好與文化背景調查(3)融入跨文化能力為基礎以設計包含「態度」的三焦點目標(4)以「受忽略文化」、「受壓抑文化」補充《論語》課程內容與討論的層次性與豐富性 (5)增加跨文化與跨時代實例以加強學生對於《論語》內容的連結(6)安排思想概念的循序漸進(7)結合《論語》內容之文化參與與體驗培養學生跨文化敏感度,並在最後基於結論提出未來教學與研究發展之建議。
Confucius and “The Analects of Confucius” had a profound influence throughout Chinese history. The concept of Chinese culture did not take cultural consciousness into account until Confucius valued "benevolence" as the meaning of human beings. Evidently, the philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, is one of the most important fundaments of Chinese culture. His teaching and philosophy have deeply affected Chinese people's behavior, attitude, and value of life. However, courses based on the Analects are generally available to high level students at the Chinese Language Center; besides, there is no clear consensus on teaching materials. When students reach the particular level, they have already missed an opportunity to learn the core values of the Analects and Confucianism. Until recently, little research has been done in analysis and practical application of teaching materials and methods, as well as a systematic planning on the curriculum of the Analects. 6-T’s approach is one of the approaches to CBI and focuses on a theme-based. In view of/Considering the current circumstances, the present study aims to incorporate the 6-T’s approach into the Content-Based Instruction (CBI) to establish a teaching strategy for the Analects. In this study, an action research was conducted. The objective of the research is to evaluate the course through three on-site teachings at a Chinese language center in Taipei, as well as through discussion with experts in Confucianism study. We also analyzed and integrated the statuses of the implementation of 6-T’s approach theory in an intermediate level Chinese course for the Analects, and shared prospective and suggestions in respect to classroom observations, opinion surveys, and interviews with the teachers/lecturers. Our research methodology demonstrated the practical application of 6-T’s approach in course planning for the Analects, and assisted teachers/lecturers in lesson preparation. The results of the study showed that the proposed course met with approval and positive response from experts and students. We also discussed the possible situations during teaching and planning by taking the five preplanning factors of the 6-T’s approach into consideration., And based on our observations, adjustments, and analysis, we devised a point-wise plan of action in response to those situations, concluding the study with future directions to improve teaching and research development.

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論語, , 內容導向課程設計, 行動研究, 6T教學法, Analects, Benevolence, CBI, Action research, Six-T’s Approach

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