觀光產業人員主動性人格特質、組織工作環境與員工創造力關係之研究

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2014

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創造力是人類社會追求進步不可或缺的要素之一,更是建構社會的基石。在全球性競爭激烈的環境中,組織如果想要具有不敗的優勢,就必須從提升員工產品的創造力做起。本研究以觀光產業人員為研究對象,旨在以特質活化理論驗證主動性人格特質受到與主動性人格相關的情境線索激發下,對創造力表現的影響;以及探討觀光產業人員主動性人格特質,在特定的組織工作環境脈絡的誘發下,透過提升內在動機對創造力表現的影響。透過問卷調查法之立意取樣進行資料收集,共發出426份問卷,回收之有效問卷數為332份,有效問卷回收率為77.9%。以SPSS與AMOS統計工具分析處理背景變項、調節效果,以及結構方程模式來驗證此路徑因果關係。研究結果顯示主動性人格與內在動機及員工創造力確實存在顯著正向因果關係、內在動機與員工創造力也呈現顯著正向關係,且社交組織與實體工作環境與員工創造力均呈現顯著正向關係。同時主動性人格在透過內在動機的中介效果下,會產生較高的員工創造力表現。在調節效果方面,經由階層迴歸分析結果也發現主動性人格會受到社交組織與實體工作環境之調節效果,影響內在動機的程度,由此發現支持「特質活化理論」加以驗證特定的人格特質受到組織、社交與任務的情境線索誘發,可活化此特質並展現在工作行為表現上。針對本研究結果提供觀光產業實務上的管理建議,透過人才甄選、支持創新文化、建立評量與獎賞制度、提供舒適實體環境,以及加強員工的教育訓練與發展均能激發員工在創造力的表現,並有助於產業的永續經營。
Creativity and innovation have been essential for human advancement and societal change. It is believed that encouraging employee creativity could be the most significant element of competitive advantage for organisations in the fierce and unpredictable business environment. This research study used Trait Activation theory that aims to identify the effects of proactive personality, different work environments and intrinsic motivation on employee creativity in the Tourism industry. Furthermore, the significant interaction effects on employee creativity between proactive personality and intrinsic motivation are examined. Also, the study examines the effects of workplace environmental elements, which may influence the relationship between creativity within proactive personality and intrinsic motivation. The research data was collected via quantitative method: questionnaire. The researcher distributed 426 surveys and received 332 valid questionnaires, with a response rate of 77.9%. SPSS and AMOS statistical analysis was employed to analyze background variables, moderating effect and structural equation modeling to test and verify the research hypotheses. The results indicated that proactive personality, social-organizational and physical work environment, and intrinsic motivation were positively and significantly correlated with employee creativity. In addition, proactive personality with positive intrinsic motivation contributes to higher creative performance. With regard to the moderating effect through hierarchical regression analysis, the results also indicate that social-organizational work environment and physical work environment have moderating effect on proactive personality and intrinsic motivation. This research supports trait activation theory and it shows that proactive personality was mediated by organizational and social context cues, which are used to enhance creativity at work as a response to trait-related cues. The findings of this study suggest that recruitment, innovative culture, evaluation and reward systems, comfortable work environment, and employee learning and development can have positive effect on employee creative performance and can be benefit for sustainable operational management in the tourism industry.

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員工創造力, 內在動機, 社交組織工作環境, 實體工作環境, 特質活化理論, employee creativity, intrinsic motivation, social-organizational work environment, physical work environment, trait- activation theory

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