中德網路抱怨行為策略對比及教學應用

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2020

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抱怨是人際互動中常見的言語行為。過往語用學研究中不乏以抱怨為 主題之文獻,範圍亦涵蓋跨文化對比研究;然而其多聚焦於真實生活中的 抱怨型態,且以英文為主要對比語言,中、德對比之網路抱怨研究尚嫌不 足。此外,既有抱怨文獻多藉引發式研究法取得語料,缺少自然言語之分 析。有鑑於此,本文選定網路平台蒐集使用者留下的抱怨評論,藉其真實 言語探討中文與德文抱怨異同,檢視文化因素於其中的影響,最後並根據 研究結果提出教學建議。 本文蒐集旅遊評論網站 TripAdvisor 之中、德抱怨語料共600筆,時間 範圍涵蓋2016年至2020年。分析重點為抱怨行為中使用者所採取的主體策 略、輔助策略類型與策略結構分佈。研究結果顯示,中文與德文於網路抱 怨行為中皆有多樣的策略選擇,其使用情況則部分反映了集體主義與個體 主義文化特徵。結構上,兩者均以單一主體策略為主,兩種主體策略為 輔,同時傾向搭配單一輔助策略。就主體策略而言,兩者皆偏好帶有主觀 色彩的評價策略,至於輔助策略,最受青睞者則是為抱怨提供背景的釋因 策略。於文化因素上,中文對評價策略的依賴與過往認定集體主義者較為 間接之現象不符,然而中文、德文各自對表願策略及表態策略的偏好仍反 映了集體主義與個體主義之文化特徵。 依據研究結果,本文設計符合德文母語者學習中文所需之抱怨策略教 案,期盼提高學習者於中文語境的網路溝通中靈活運用抱怨策略之能力。
The speech act of complaint is a common linguistic behaviour frequently observed in interpersonal communication and has been investigated by studies from the perspective of pragmatics and cross-cultural communication. These studies, however, have so far focused on either face-to-face complaints or on comparison of English and other language, thus leaving a research gap in Chinese- German analysis of their online language use. Moreover, most of the studies have employed an elicitation technique and lacked proof from authentic languages. As a result, the present study aims to compare the Chinese and German computer- mediated complaints and determine how cultural values affect the behaviour of users. A data set of 600 complaints in Chinese and German from the website TripAdvisor, dated from 2016 to 2020, was examined. The collected materials were analysed according to the head act, supportive move and structuring of strategies. The result revealed that both Chinese and German complaints are formed of a variety of strategies, where the preference of both cultures partially exhibits behavioural traits of collectivism and individualism. Overall, complaints are made with one or two head acts and one supportive move in both Chinese and German, where an evaluation is the most preferred strategy in head acts and reason-explaining the strategy generally favoured in supportive moves. In terms of cultural factors, the finding that Chinese complaints use a great number of evaluation strategies does not cohere with the belief that collectivist cultures favour an indirect communication style. However, the preference Chinese complaints show for wish expression, as well as the German preference for declaration, still reflects the characteristics of collectivism and individualism. Based on the results, a lesson plan for German learners of Chinese is designed in the present study, so as to enhance the ability of using complaint strategies in computer-mediated communication.

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抱怨言語行為, 跨文化語用學, 中德對比, 網路溝通, 華語教學, speech act of complaint, cross-cultural pragmatics, Chinese-German contrastive analysis, computer-mediated communication, Chinese teaching

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