樂觀訓練課程對國小高年級學童樂觀信念、因應策略之影響

Abstract

  本研究主要目的在設計一套適合國小高年級學童之樂觀訓練課程,探討該課程對國小高年級學生樂觀信念、因應策略的立即及追蹤效果。以新竹市某國小五年級共120名學生為研究對象,兩班為實驗組共62人;兩班為控制組共58人,實驗組接受為期六週,每週二節課(80分鐘),共計480分鐘的實驗課程處理,控制組則未接受任何實驗課程處理。   本研究以「兒童樂觀信念量表」、「青少年因應策略量表」為量化資料的評量工具,於課程結束進行後測,課程結束二週後再進行追蹤後測,所得資料以獨立樣本單因子共變數分析進行統計處理,並分析「單元回饋表」、「課程總回饋表」、「學生及教師訪談問卷」及「教師省思札記」為輔佐資料,以瞭解本研究方案介入的效果。主要發現如下: 一、樂觀訓練課程設計過程嚴謹並填補研究之缺口。 二、樂觀訓練課程的教學符合學生學習需求。 三、樂觀訓練課程能提升學生的樂觀信念: 1.課程能立即並持續提升學生「對正向結果抱持自信」的樂觀信念。 2.課程能立即並持續提升學生「有毅力的追求目標」的樂觀信念。 3.課程對於學生樂觀信念中的「負向預期且懷疑自我」與「半途而廢」未有立即及持續的效果。 4.驗證樂觀與悲觀是雙向度的論點。 四、樂觀訓練課程無法提升國小高年級學生的因應策略。 五、實驗組學生對樂觀訓練課程看法採正向態度,對於各單元均有很高的滿意度、普遍非常喜歡課程並認為對個人有幫助、主觀自評改變則以認知與情意方面居多。   最後,根據本研究結果加以討論,並提出未來教育和輔導以及研究上的具體建議,以做為後續教育輔導及未來研究的參考。
  The purposes of this study were to design an optimism training program for 5th grade students and to investigate its immediate and tracking effects on students’ optimistic beliefs and coping strategies. There were totally 120 students from an elementary school in Hsin-Chu participating in this study, 62 of which were assigned to the experimental group and 58 of which to the control group. Students in the experimental group went through the 480-min. optimism training program for 6 weeks, 80 min. per week, while those in the control group didn’t experience any experimental training.   The quantitative instruments utilized to examine the effcts of the training were “Children’s Optimistic Beliefs Inventory” and“Adolescent Coping Strategies Inventory”, which were administered at the end of the training and 2 weeks later for tracking. The collected data were analyzed with one-way ANCOVA. The qualitative data including “feedback questionnaires”, “interview data from students”, “interview data from teachers”, and “teacher’s reflective journals” were also analyzed to examine the effects of the training. The findings were presented as the following. 1. The design process of the optimism training program is rigorous. 2.“Optimism Training Program”teaching could be applied to the learning needs. 3. The optimism training program elevated students’ optimistic beliefs. (1)The training immediately and continuously boosted students’ ” to be confident on positive outcomes”. (2)The training immediately and continuously encouraged students’ ” to pursue their goals perseveringly”. (3)The training didn’t influence students’ “negative expectation and self-doubt” nor “quitting in the middle of the way”. (4)The study supported the argument that optimism and pessimism are bipolar. 4. The optimism training didn’t elevate 5th grade students’ coping strategies. 5. Students in the experimental groups took positive attitude toward the training. They not only were satisfied with every unit of the training but also enjoyed the training, considered it helpful, and subjectively believed that the training changed them cognitively and affectively.   The forgoing results were discussed at the latter part of this study. Some concrete suggestions on education, student guidance and research were also provided.

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Keywords

樂觀訓練課程, 樂觀信念, 因應策略, optimism training program, optimistic belief, coping strategies

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