日本長宿休閒客選擇長宿地點影響因素之探討

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2014

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長宿休閒為特殊之旅遊休閒活動,係指以「根留母國」為前提,在海外進行二週以上的旅居,強調與當地居民交流,體驗當地生活。近年來日本人興起至海外長宿休閒之風潮,不少東南亞國家將長宿休閒列為旅遊發展重點,積極推動各項相關配套措施,以吸引日人前來。我國政府相關單位也曾積極推動長宿休閒之發展,希望能吸引日人來臺長宿休閒,結果卻未如預期理想。究竟哪些因素影響日籍長宿休閒旅客選擇長宿休閒地點?從旅遊地理學角度出發,地理環境因素是否為重要的影響因子之一? 因此,本研究之目的為探討影響日本籍長宿休閒客在選擇地點時的重要因子,分別從自然地理與人文地理面向進行分析探討。在自然地理因素之探討上,藉由「氣候舒適度指數」,分析臺灣臺北、臺中、臺南、高雄、花蓮、臺東與泰國曼谷、清邁及馬來西亞吉隆坡、檳城等十個城市的指數。本文收集2001至2010年期間的氣候資料以進行統計分析。研究結果顯示我國主要城市全年平均舒適日數略少於馬、泰二國的四個城市;但冬季時,臺灣南部及東部的平均舒適日數多,頗適合日人來臺避寒進行長宿休閒活動。 在人文影響因子之探討,本研究於日本現地發放日文問卷,共收集獲得252份有效問卷。從問卷分析結果發現,日本人選擇長宿休閒目的地主要考慮「治安良好與否」、「居住環境良好與否」、「醫療體制完善與否」與「物價高低」。日籍人士對臺灣觀光整體意向良好,但普遍認為「物價」較馬、泰二國高。日本人對臺灣有興趣的觀光資源中,以「食物」(25.5%)、「文化風俗」(16.9%)、「自然景觀」(15.1%)比例最高;然而對「農村體驗」則最不感興趣(僅2.6%)。
Long-stay tourism is one of a tourism style, which has become popular for many years. Apart from the recreation purpose, long-stay tourism has highly involved with the term ‘Second-home’. Long-stay tourism is one of international retirement migration (IRM) and long stay tourists are special, both in terms of purpose and length of stay, though they both are involved with lifestyle migration. Japanese international retirement migration and long-stay tourism have occurred and grew rapidly within the context of Japan being an aged society after experiencing post-war economic growth. Taiwan government has promoted long-stay development plan to attract the Japanese to visit Taiwan. However, Malaysia and Thailand also advocate long-stay development plan and attracts more Japanese tourists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors that affect the choice of long-stay destination. Firstly, climate factors were considered. The climate data of major cities in Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand were collected and analyzed. The indicator of outdoor thermal comfortable was used to indicate which city is more comfortable to stay. The results showed the six cities in Taiwan are less comfortable than Chiang Mai, Kuala Lumpur, and Penang; though Kaohsiung, Hualien and Taitung are also comfortable during winter seasons. Other factors were also discussed in this research based on the questionnaire survey of Japanese people. Finally, 252 effective samples were collected and their opinions were analyzed. According to the results, Japanese people rank the most important factors including “public security”, “living environment”, “medical facilities”, and “commodity price”. The differences among Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand were also discussed based on these major factors in terms of Japanese tourists’ perception. In summary, Taiwan has some advantages including security, living environment, medical facilities and so on to develop long-stay tourism; however, the disadvantages such as commodity price and visa application were also found in this study.

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旅遊地理學, 長宿休閒, 氣候舒適度指數, 日本銀髮族, Geography of Tourism, Long stay, outdoor thermal comfortable, Japanese tourists

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