制度壓力對綠色創新績效之影響—以綠色訓練為中介變項

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2023

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本研究以制度理論為基礎,分為強制壓力、規範壓力、模仿壓力,故本研究將強制壓力、規範壓力與模仿壓力做為前置變項,綠色創新績效做為結果變項,並以綠色訓練做為中介變項。本研究以台灣製造業為研究對象,以組織層級的角度試圖了解企業在永續浪潮下,強制壓力、規範壓力、模仿壓力影響綠色訓練、綠色創新績效之程度。透過紙本問卷與網路問卷發放,共回收有效問卷123份,並利用SPSS23與JASP統計軟體進行敘述性統計、相關分析、信效度分析、結構方程模型分析、差異分析等。其研究結果顯示:(1)強制壓力對綠色訓練不具有顯著影響;(2)規範壓力對綠色訓練具有正向影響;(3)模仿壓力對綠色訓練不具有顯著影響;(4)綠色訓練對綠色創新績效具有正向影響;(5)強制壓力對綠色創新績效不具有顯著影響;(6)規範壓力對綠色創新績效不具有顯著影響;(7)模仿壓力對綠色創新績效不具有顯著影響;(8)綠色訓練在強制壓力與綠色創新績效之間不具有中介效果;(9)綠色訓練在規範壓力與綠色創新績效之間具有中介效果;(10)綠色訓練在模仿壓力與綠色創新績效之間不具有中介效果。依循上述之研究成果,本研究提出相關管理實務意涵之建議,說明當企業面臨來自客戶、供應商甚至是消費者的期待和要求時,組織會更有意願提供員工有關永續發展、淨零碳排等相關知識和技能訓練課程,透過綠色訓練提高其參與綠色創新的能力和知識,開發出環保產品、提供環境友好的解決方案,有助於組織提高綠色創新績效。但是,儘管受到政府、法律和監管政策的約束,並不足以成為企業進行綠色訓練和綠色創新績效的主要動機,本研究推測可能原因為,歐盟碳邊境調整機制(CBAM)於2023年10月起將分階段進場管制,初期的管制範圍,僅限水泥、電力、肥料、鋼鐵、鋁業的五大高碳排產業,鑒於研究樣本的複雜性,各個產業受CBAM的影響程度不一,此一原因可能分散了來自國際碳排政策的強制壓力。此外,根據研究樣本資料顯示,台灣企業進行永續發展專案的時間10年以下佔比74.8%,10年以上佔比25.2%,顯示了台灣企業在綠色創新方面仍處於上升階段,期盼在未來台灣標竿企業能以母雞帶小雞的方式成為其他企業學習的典範,更進一步來說,不同產業的企業可能面臨不同的技術限制、市場需求、供應鏈管理和資金等方面的挑戰,這進一步限制了模仿壓力對企業進行綠色訓練與綠色創新績效之影響。
Based on the institutional theory and proposes a research framework. This study tries to explore the effect of coercive pressure, normative pressure, and mimetic pressure on green innovation performance via green training in business level.In this study, a total of 123 valid samples were collected from executives of enterprises that implement sustainable development project and analyzed by SPSS 23 and JASP software.The results of this study showed that: (1) Coercive pressure had no significant impact on green training; (2) Normative pressure had positive effect on green training; (3) Mimetic pressure had no significant impact on green training; (4) Green training had positive effect on green innovation performance; (5) Coercive pressure had no significant impact on green innovation performance; (6) Normative pressure had no significant impact on green innovation performance; (7) Mimetic pressure had no significant impact on green innovation performance; (8) Green training had no mediation impact on coercive pressure and green innovation performance; (9) Green training had mediating impact on normative pressure and green innovation performance ; (10) Green training had no mediation impact on mimetic pressure and green innovation performance.Based on the above research results, the study provides practical implications and suggests. When businesses face expectations and demands from customers, suppliers, and even consumers, organizations are more willing to provide employees with training programs on sustainable development, and other related knowledge and skills. Enhancing the capability and knowledge of organizations to engage in green innovation, through green training will developing eco-friendly products, and providing environmentally friendly solutions, improving their green innovation performance. However, despite being constrained by government, legal, and regulatory policies, these factors alone are not sufficient to serve as the primary motivation for companies to engage in green training and green innovation performance. This study speculates that one possible reason is the phased introduction of the European Union's Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) starting from October 2023, which initially covers only the five high-carbon emitting industries of cement, power, fertilizers, steel, and aluminum. Given the complexity of the research sample, the extent to which each industry is affected by CBAM may vary, thereby dispersion the coercive pressure from international carbon emission policies. Furthermore, according to the research sample data, 74.8% of Taiwanese companies have been engaging in sustainability projects for less than 10 years, while 25.2% have been doing so for 10 years or more. This indicates that Taiwanese companies are still in the early stages of green innovation. It is hoped that Taiwan's leading companies can serve as role models for other businesses, setting an example for them to follow. Moreover, different industries may face various challenges such as technological limitations, market demands, supply chain management, and financial constraints, further limiting the influence of mimetic pressure on companies' green training and green innovation performance.

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制度壓力, 綠色訓練, 綠色創新績效, institutional pressure, green training, green innovation performance

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