從資訊自決權論學生資料保護

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2005

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Abstract

  基於現代法治國家「尊重人性尊嚴」之理念,學生資料之保護有重視之必要。故本論文研究目的希望透過資訊自決權概念及學生資料管理現況之探討,提供實際上或學理討論上的一些檢討和建議,以求在行政業務電腦化的趨勢下,能完整保護學生個人資料,以確保學生之人格發展。   本論文採取文獻分析、法釋義學和晤談等方法進行研究,在資訊自決權方面,就相關論述與法律文獻加以分析和討論,所採用者包含美國、德國及日本的文獻資料。在學生資料處理現況上,本論文藉由法釋義學來分析相關規定,將與資訊自決權相關之規定,以及台北市、高雄市、台北縣國中學生資料保護之規定加以蒐集、整理、分析,以呈現學生資料管理之爭議及缺失,並透過和學校行政人員進行晤談,以瞭解學生資料管理的現況。 基於上述,本研究得到以下幾點結論: 一、個人對自身資料有自我決定權利。惟有個人能充分掌握自我的資  料,對資料的處理和使用過程有自我決定的權利,才能徹底解決  個人資料的安全問題。 二、個人資料應受保護。為了防範自己變成資訊完全透明的個體,個  人必須充分掌握自己的資料,才能確保對個人資料的保護。 三、資訊自決權之立法與保護。透過憲法對人權保障之意旨及相關立  法解釋,資訊自決權的維護應獲肯定。當務之急係使資訊自決權  之概念在法律體制中建立,使執法者及適用之人民認知此一權利  之存在及其內涵。 四、學生資料管理措施未臻完備。在現行的制度中,各處室所負責的  學生資料都缺乏完善的規範,需要透過立法加以改善,使其健   全。 五、學生資料電腦化後應注意之保護措施。在教育行政業務走向電腦  化的趨勢下,應特別注意學生資料電腦化之保護措施。 最後,本研究針對教育行政機關、行政執行單位及學校三方面提出建議,以期資料的建立和保管有更完善的處理方式。
Abstract Given the considerable emphasis laid upon the idea of “human dignity,” it is essential that we protect information with regard to students’ background. This thesis aims to explore the concept of self-determination in the informative age and the current management of student data, with a view to offering theoretical reflections as well as practical suggestions so as to, by better preserving their individual information, ensure the development of students’ personality. Document analysis, law exegesis, and personal interviews consist of the central methodology of this thesis. As far as the concept of self-determination is concerned, relevant discourses and documents will be analyzed and discussed, among which American, German and Japanese citations are included. As for the current management of student data, this thesis resorts to law exegesis as a way to analyze rules concerning information self-determination. In addition, it gathers, organizes and analyzes current rules on preservation of student data formulated by some junior high schools in Taipei City, Taipei County and Kaohsiung City in order to present debates and defects of these rules. To achieve this, interviews with the administrative staff are conducted. Thus, to conclude the main points of this thesis: 1. Every individual owns the right of self-determination over his or her personal information. Only when they enjoy full access to their information and self-determine what is and how it is processed will the issue of personal information security be brought to a close. 2. Personal information should be safeguarded. In order to prevent information leakage which results in a full exposure of an individual’s identity, relevant information should be given a full access to each individual so that it is safeguarded. 3. Information self-determination is to be legislated. Given the priority placed upon human rights in the Constitution and the explanations other pertinent laws offer, the right of information self-determination should be granted and guaranteed. Most crucially for the present is that the concept of information self-determination be established in the current legal system. The law executors as well as the general populace should recognize the existence of this right and learn more about its nature. 4. Management of student data should be improved. Resort to legislation will improve the insufficiencies of the current measures for student data management. 5. More protective measures are needed when student data are computerized. To live up to the tendency of information computerization, the education administration should pay a special attention to the protection of these computerized data. Finally, this thesis advances suggestions from perspectives of the education administration, the administrative personnel and the school, in the hope of facilitating the establishment and preservation of student data.

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資訊自決權, 個人資料保護, 學生資料

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