痛苦的存在: 全球化時代下內戰的再現 Painful Existence: Representations of Civil Wars in the Global Age

Abstract
二十世紀是戰爭的世紀。從二十世紀初到二十世紀末,戰爭經歷各式變遷。不論是在戰事規模上與戰爭策略上,戰爭的變化都不曾停歇或消弭,這使得二十世紀被多數軍事學者與專家稱之為戰爭的世紀。本論文著眼於二十世紀末新式內戰的再現,透過閱讀當代描寫內戰的四部作品—包括一部小說與三部電影—來探討今日新式戰爭的崛起以及今日文本對於新內戰的再現。本論文主要以二十世紀末全球化發展為切入點,討論新內戰與全球化之間的政經關係,且得以窺見國家角色的轉變與跨國組織的困境跟挑戰,此外更透過討論全球化來理解新內戰的崛起,以及其戰爭經濟與政治鬥爭如何連結到全球化的發展。透過文本分析,筆者除了探究二十世紀末戰爭與全球化的關係之外,更以此為背景而進一步討論新式內戰中平民的苦難,以及平民如何取代士兵來形塑新的戰爭論述與看法。本論文所分析的四部作品皆以平民的角度為出發點,再現複雜而駭人的戰爭景象。這些文本除了展現平民如何取代士兵成為新式戰爭的主要受害者之外,更展現出戰爭如何在全球化的時空下搖身成為平民日常生活經驗的一部份。透過探討戰爭與平民之間的關係,筆者除了試圖建構出新的戰爭論述與詮釋以外,更期望透過這樣的分析能吸引更多研究者一同討論新式戰爭的本質,以及一同思考戰爭在當代的意涵為何,能夠透過怎樣的再現而建構出更多且更豐富的研究議題與方向。
The twentieth century is a century of wars. Wars have experienced various changes and alterations from the beginning of the twentieth century to the end of the century and they never really come to an end. So many military scholars and experts would like to call the twentieth century a century of wars. This thesis emphasizes representations of new civil wars at the end of the twentieth century by reading the latest texts concerned with wars. The four texts in analysis include one fiction and three novels that can help us to investigate new civil wars and contemporary representations of warfare. Focusing on the global developments during the 1980s, this thesis investigates the political and economical relationships between new civil wars and globalization to examine perplexity of civil wars and connections between new war economy, political wrestling, and global developments. Based on the background of a global age, this thesis advances to study tortures of civilians in civil wars. Besides, this thesis aims to contemplate new war discourses and interpretations especially when civilians have gradually replaced soldiers to be the main participants of warfare. In the thesis, the four texts I choose all describe wars in the viewpoints of local inhabitants and display complicated and horrible war scenes. They not only present victimization of local inhabitants but also show transformations of civil wars which become part of life experiences of civilians in their daily life. By contemplating on the relationships between civil wars and civilians, I purpose to construct new war discourses and understandings of wars. Moreover, I expect to draw more scholars’ attentions to such an issue to study the nature of new wars and meanings of wars in contemporary period to constitute more interesting and insightful topics and directions.
Description
Keywords
新內戰, 全球化, 再現, 平民, 恐懼, 戰爭論述, New civil wars, Globalization, Representations, Civilians, Terror, War discourse
Citation
Collections