初階兒童華語教材詞彙比較與詞彙教學:以德語區低年級兒童為例

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2022

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語言構成的元素:詞彙、音韻、語法、語用。其中詞彙是語言的最小基礎元素,任何語言的教學,詞彙教學都是語言教學的關鍵,華語教學也不例外。海外的二語學習者,都有幾近相同的困難—缺乏目標語的語言環境,無法練習詞彙。德語區華語二語兒童學習者,面對的不僅是缺乏語境的問題,還有課時不足的困境。華語教學常見的三個問題:怎麼教?教什麼?怎麼學?又因上述的兩個困境,故須充份利用每週寶貴的課時,讓學習者在課堂上分分秒秒的練習「聽」、「說」成了最佳解方。本研究目的是由教師視角和學生動機兩個面向找出最適本區的教學法和配合的詞彙教學及詞彙教材。經由調查教師的教學行為調查發現:本區大部分教師採用的教學法—聽說教學法;大量「聽」、「說」練習,符合「精講多練」的外語學習原則。德語區華語教學最常用的三套教材—《學華語向前走》、《中文》、《學步中文》比較三份教材在主題的選取、詞彙—尤其是方位詞的編排和選取的差異。經過教材詞彙的比較發現《學華語向前走》的練習包含許多「聽」、「說」練習,並且練習多樣,是有效的同時也最適合德語區低年級兒童的華語學習教材;《學步中文》所選取的教材詞彙是本區最適合的補充教材之一。從學生學習動機的調查中觀察到學生的在隨緣動機部分並非絶對因素;而外在動機影響學生的學習動機也不大;內在動機和文化規範在學習上的相關程度比較高。文化認同規範會隨著德語的逐漸強勢而減弱。
Vocabulary is a crucial component of teaching a language, Mandarin Chinese included. However, for beginners learning Chinese overseas, they do not have access to a Chinese environment to practice and reinforce that vocabulary. Under German law, Chinese schools mostly exist as weekends schools, which means a maximum of 15 classes every semester. There is neither enough time nor an environment to practice in for German-speaking children, which are the main difficulties in learning Mandarin Chinese in Germany.The most common questions regarding teaching Chinese as a foreign language are: what to teach, how to teach, and how do the students learn. In order to combat the aforementioned issues, the most time efficient teaching method must be used. The purpose of this study is to find the best teaching method and teaching material for this environment through the perspective of teachers and student motivation. The Audio-Lingual Method was found to be the most suitable. This matches the principle of “practice talking makes perfect” when learning a foreign language.This study analyzed the vocabulary of three different Mandarin Chinese textbook sets commonly used in Germany: “Let’s Learn Chinese”, “Zhongwen Mandarin Chinese Course”, and “Chinesisch lernen- Schritt für Schritt.” Particularly, the differences between the three textbooks in choice of topics, vocabulary, and layout design were analyzed. “Lets Learn Chinese” was found to include a lot of “listening”and “speaking” exercises. The variety of exercises makes it most effective and most suitable as Chinese learning material for lower-grade elementary German speakers.A survey of student motivation observed that motivation was not an overwhelming factor; external motivation did not affect student motivation for learning to a great extent; internal motivation and cultural norms were more relevant in learning. However, cultural influence was weakened as the influence of the German language became stronger.

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華語二語學習, 德語區, 兒童華語教學, 詞彙教學, 聽說教學法, Chinese second language learning, German-speaking area, teaching Chinese for children, vocabulary teaching, Audio-Lingual Method

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