國小四年級美術班與普通班不同性別兒童對少字圖畫書的圖像理解與眼球運動之差異

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2011

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豐富的影像環境已成為兒童學習成長的背景,台灣各縣市國民小學陸續成立美術班後,兒童有更多的選擇提早接觸視覺藝術上的專業訓練,是否對於圖像閱讀上的理解上有所助益是個有趣的問題。本研究比較國民小學四年級(10-11歲)普通班與美術班學生,對少字圖畫書瘋狂星期二的圖像閱讀理解及眼球運動之差異。本研究以2(班級專長)× 2(性別)的獨立樣本實驗,透過問卷以及眼動儀器實驗等方式,分析班級專長及性別的差異是否影響圖像理解。研究結果發現:(1)在「畫面手法理解」及「故事表現手法理解」上,美術班學生理解表現顯著高於普通班學生;(2)整體理解平均值表現上女生高於男生;(3)在「故事內容理解」平均掃視幅度上,美術班學生表現顯著高於普通班學生、女生表現顯著高於男生;(4)在「故事連貫性理解」、「畫面手法理解」平均掃視幅度上,美術班學生表現顯著高於普通班學生;(5)在「故事連貫性理解」掃視次數及注視次數上,普通班學生表現顯著高於美術班學生;(6)在「畫面手法理解」掃視次數及注視次數上,女生表現顯著高於男生;(7)美術班學生在理解回答上多數以相關或美術性用語為主,而普通班學生以直接、感覺性的回答個體理解想法;(8)在圖像特徵觀察理解上,理解方向正確的參與者傾向有相同的視覺凝視熱點。
The rich visual culture has become the background of a child’s growing process. Subsequent to the addition of art classes in primary schools in counties and cities in Taiwan, children are now opened to options to have early exposure to professional and specialized artistic creation training. But will the disparity in professional background be influential and cause a difference on their comprehension of images? This study is aiming at primary school fourth graders aged 10 to 11 from art-major and non-art major classes, the research is done by using the picture book “Tuesday” to determine their image comprehension and differences in eye movement. This study applied an experimental design of 2 (class type) × 2(gender), through analysis of questionnaires and eye-tracking data, to determine the influence of academic nature and gender on image comprehension. The results showed that: (1) In both visual representation and story narration understanding, art-major students outperformed non-art major students in their level of comprehension. (2) Girls performed better than boys in overall. (3) Art major students have a higher average saccade amplitude scope than non-art major students; the girls’ performance is noticeably better than the boys. (4) In storyline continuity and visual representation understanding, art major students have a higher average saccade amplitude scope than non-art major students. (5) In story continuity understanding, non-art major students have a higher number of saccade and fixation than art major students. (6) In visual representation understanding, girls have higher number of saccade and fixation. (7) In comprehension and making responses, art major students made use of art terminology and related terms, while non-art major students gave a more direct and perceptive response in their individual comprehension and opinion. (8) When searching for key images, participants who comprehend the story correctly had similar fixation hot spot.

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認知發展, 圖像理解, 眼球運動, 注意力, 美術資優生, 視覺藝術, cognition development, image comprehension, eye movement, attention, art major students, visual arts

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