電視新聞文字記者資訊行為與資訊焦慮之現象研究

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2011

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在資訊爆炸的現在,電視新聞文字記者,其資訊行為也因網路的發展而產生了改變,而文字記者同時是資訊的需求者也是資訊的生產者,在不斷的需求與生產的互動中,其資訊焦慮產生的現象亦值得探討。因此,本研究旨在探討電視新聞文字記者的資訊行為以及其模式,並探討資訊尋求模式的階段中,資訊焦慮產生之情形。 本研究以深度訪談的方式,與10位電視新聞文字記者進行訪談,分析結果發現,文字記者的資訊行為中,其資訊需求受到組織的政策及收視率的影響,亦必須常保持強烈的資訊需求;而資訊尋求管道可分為平面報紙、網路、公關往來、會稿、其他來源等五項,其中文字記者使用網路資源做為新聞題材的情況非常普及;在資訊正確性的查證與篩選上,文字記者常受限於截稿時間,而使得篩選與求證資訊正確性的過程無法善盡。 另外在資訊焦慮方面,組織上層壓力與截稿時間壓力為文字記者資訊焦慮的影響因素,而資訊焦慮之成因可分為外在壓力、資訊超載、資訊缺乏三大類別,其中三項類別之下的「同業相同新聞」、「獨漏新聞」、「資訊不對稱」、「撰稿中消化大量資訊」、「在外採訪缺乏相關資訊」、「資訊不連貫」為文字記者獨特的資訊焦慮現象;而文字記者的資訊焦慮症狀除了心理上的急躁、憂鬱等負面情緒,生理的表現上則有頭痛、胃痛、脹氣等,嚴重地影響文字記者的生活品質,但文字記者工作經驗的累積,相對可減低文字記者產生資訊焦慮之情形。 最後,本研究參考其Kuhlthau(2004)所提出的七個階段資訊尋求過程,增加了「篩選與求證」的階段,發展文字記者的資訊尋求模式,經過分析比對後,發現文字記者於資訊行為的每個階段皆會產生資訊焦慮。
In the information explosion generation, now, TV news reporters whose behavior has changed because of information arising from the development of the network. And the TV news reporters is not only the producer of information but also the person of information, in the constant interaction between demand and production, the phenomenon of information anxiety is also worth discussing. Therefore, the main purpose of the study is to investigate the information behavior of TV news reporters , its model of information behavior, and discussing the stages of the information behavior search process, the phenomenon of generation of information anxiety. In this study, depth interviews with 10 journalists in TV news, analysis results found that the information need affect by the “organization's policies” and the “impact of the ratings”, they must always maintain a strong information needs; and information search channels can be divided into “flat newspapers”, “internet”, “public relations”, “exchanges”, and “other sources”, and the TV news reporters with the issues of network resources is very popular. To verify accuracy of the information and screening, the TV news reporters often limited by press time, the accuracy of the information always can’t fulfill. In terms of information anxiety, organizational pressure and the pressure of time is the factors of anxiety, and the causes information anxiety can be divided into “external pressures”, “information overload”, “the lack of information” three categories, under which “the same with industry news”, “independent leak of news”, “information asymmetry”, “a lot of information to digest when written”, “the lack of relevant information when out interview “, “inconsistent information” as the TV news reporter unique information anxiety phenomenon; and information anxiety of TV news reporter in addition to psychological symptoms of irritable anxiety, depression and other negative emotions, physical performance have headache, stomach pain, flatulence, etc., seriously affecting the quality of life, but the accumulation of experience, relatively reduce TV news reporter information anxiety situation. Finally, this study reference to Kuhlthau (2004) proposed seven stages of information search process and add the “screening and confirmation” stage, the development of information for TV news reporter information search model, after analysis and comparison, we found that TV news reporter in the information behavior of the each stage will have information anxiety.

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資訊行為, 資訊焦慮, 電視新聞文字記者

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