校外實習學生專業社會化歷程之研究─以某一所技術學院餐飲系為例

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2006

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中文摘要 專業社會化是指由非專業人員轉變為專業人員的歷程,校外實習是餐飲學生專業社會化歷程中非常重要的一個階段。研究過程採用質的研究方法,運用深度訪談及文件收集等方法以求瞭解實習學生在實習期間所經歷的問題與想法。 本研究發現實習專業社會化歷程可分憧憬期、震撼期及適應成長期;實習收穫則有技能學習、建立人際關係、學習客訴處理、性緒調整等收穫,面臨同事刁難、輕視、工作內容瑣事、精神和體力折磨、人力壓榨及職業病等挫折;專業社會化之影響因素分為個人屬性與環境屬性,個人屬性包含角色認知、心理準備、先備經驗驗,環境屬性包含實習現場、重要他人、支持系統等,實習學生對實習的建議或意見可分對學弟妹:在實習前避免先入為主的影響、抱持正確工作態度、選擇適合自己的實習單位,對學校:希望學校適時給予學生相關協助,提早選擇實習單位、加強實習指導老師功能,對實習單位:改善主管態度、減輕工作量負荷過重、管理制度人性化、提供在職訓練、改善實習生福利、職業傷害預防;實習生的自我省思包含專業認同與自我覺知。 最後提出七項改善校外實習制度之建議,包含規劃增進餐飲實務經驗的職前課程練習與複習機會、加強實習前心理調適訓練 、建立校外實習學生支持系統、減低角色期望的差距、改變實習單位主管與同事迷思、善用校外實習日誌的功能、強化實習學生餐飲外語能力;對未來研究則提出二項建議:研究對象宜同時擴及其他學校,或各學制及不同學科之比較;進行系統性之縱貫式研究。 關鍵字:校外實習、社會化、專業社會化。
Abstract Professional socialization refers to the process of transformation from a non-professional into a professional. Off-campus internship is a very important stage in the process of professional socialization for the students of food science industries. Research methods of qualities are used in the research processes with the application of in-depth interviews and data collections in order to understand the problems and thoughts encountered by the intern students during the period of internship. This study found that the process of professional socialization during the internship can be divided into the stage of expectations, the stage of shock, and the stage of adaptation and growth; whereas the gains from the internship are learning of the techniques, building interpersonal relationships, learning how to handle customer complaints, and how to adjust personal emotions especially when facing hardship imposed by colleagues, being belittled, given with miscellaneous jobs, being emotionally as well as physically tortured, or experiencing setbacks such as exploitation and occupational hazards. Personal factors and environmental factors are the two types of factors that influence professional socialization. Personal factors include cognition for the role; emotional preparation; and past experiences, and the environmental factors include the location of the internship; important other parties; and the support systems. The comments and suggestions from the intern students are directed at the fellow students, such as to avoid stereotyped thoughts before beginning the internship; to hold on to the correct work attitudes; and to choose the appropriate organizations for oneself for the internship. Comments and suggestions are also directed at the school, hoping that the school could improve the functions of the guidance teachers for internship and provide the students with related assistances at appropriate times so that the students could choose in advance the organization for the internship. Furthermore, comments and suggestions are directed at the organizations for the internship hoping that the attitudes of the managers could be improved; to decrease the overloaded work load; to implement a humane management system; to provide job training; to improve the welfare for the intern students; and to prevent occupational hazards. Finally, self thoughts from the intern students include recognition and acknowledgement to professionalism and self understanding and perception. In the end, 7 items of suggestions for the improvement of off -campus internship systems are proposed and they included the planning to increase physical experiences within the food industries with lesson practices and rehearsal opportunities before entering into the job field; the improvements of training on psychological adjustments before the internship; the establishment of off-campus intern students support systems; to decrease the differences on the expectations for the roles; to change the myths between the organization management and the colleagues; to make good use of the functions of the off-campus internship diaries or blogs; and to strengthen the foreign language abilities of the food science intern students. Lastly, 2 items of suggestions are proposed for future researches: that the criteria for research subjects should be expanded to other schools or other academic systems and faculties in order to draw up comparisons, and that systematic longitudinal researches should be carried out on these subjects. Key words: off-campus internship, socialization, professional socialization

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校外實習, 社會化, 專業社會化, off-campus internship, socialization, professional socialization

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