探析1920年代「道爾頓制」在中國的實踐經驗─三所中等學校

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2021

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本研究旨在探究帕克赫斯特女士的道爾頓制與中國學者試行的道爾頓制,進行整體的深入理解及掌握。主要採歷史研究取向,透過相關教育學者所撰的專著、期刊、論文等文獻,進行綜合與分析的理解,並期冀能藉由探討道爾頓制(Dalton Plan)的發展歷史脈絡及在民國初期的實踐情況,期能做一深度反思並探析道爾頓制其核心精神,以能適切地轉化至臺灣教育情境中,提供臺灣教育改革方針參考。  全文共分五章,第一章說明研究動機與目的、研究問題與方法、研究範圍及名詞釋義。第二章介紹目前國內外對道爾頓制相關主題的研究,提供本研究做此研究之基礎。第三章從帕克赫斯特女士的專著及相關史料,論述道爾頓制在美國的形成與發展。第四章為道爾頓制傳入中國之歷史背景,以及道爾頓制在吳淞中學、東南大學附中及北京藝文中學的實施情況。第五章為結論與省思,為本研究作一總結及省思。  本研究從道爾頓制在中國的實踐經驗發現,在帕克赫斯特訪華前,實行的成效不盡理想。很大的原因在於理想和現實之間仍有一段距離,且實行道爾頓制的學校教師人力安排、空間設備或教材的編制等因素,使得實行道爾頓制困難重重,並無法達成帕克赫斯特道爾頓制的理想藍圖。有鑑於中國實行道爾頓制的經驗,本研究以教師、軟硬體設備、教育時勢與改革方案等面向提出六項要點,以供台灣在推動新教育時參考,並從中體會若未能掌握道爾頓制的教育精髓及深刻體認所處社會背景,恐怕難以在改革浪潮下得到好的成效。
The purpose of this study is to explore Ms. Parkhurst's Dalton Plan and the Dalton Plan tried out by Chinese scholars for an overall understanding and mastery. It mainly takes the historical research orientation and makes comprehensive and analytical understanding through the monographs, periodicals, papers and other documents written by relevant educational scholars, and hopes to make a deep reflection and explore the core spirit of the Dalton Plan by discussing the development history of the Dalton Plan and its practice in the early Republic ofChina. Therefore, it can be appropriately translated into the educational situation in Taiwan and provide a reference for the educational reform policy in Taiwan.  The thesis is divided into five chapters. The first chapter describes the motivation and purpose of the research, the research questions and methods, the research scope and the definition of terms. The second chapter introduces the current domestic and foreign research on the Dalton Plan related topics and provides the basis for this study. The third chapter discusses the formation and development of Dalton Plan in the United States from Ms. Parkhurst's monograph and relevant historical materials. The fourth chapter is the historical background of Dalton Plan introduction into China, and the implementation of Dalton Plan in the Wusong Middle School, the Affiliated High School of Southeast University and Beijing Art Middle School. The fifth chapter is the conclusion and reflection, which is a summary and reflection for this study.   Based on the practical experience of Dalton Plan in China, this study found that the effect of the Dalton Planwas not ideal before Parkhurst's visit to China. The main reason is that there is still a distance between the ideal and the reality, and the Dalton Plan is difficult to implement because of the factors such as teacher manpower arrangement, space equipment and textbook compilation, and the ideal blueprint of Parkhurst Dalton Plan cannot be achieved. In light of China for its experience of Dalton plan, this study with teachers, software and hardware equipment, education time and reform plan to put forward six main points, such as in promoting new education reference for Taiwan, and realized that the failure to grasp Dalton plan education essence and profound awareness of social background, it may be difficult to achieve good results under the tide of reform.

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作業室, 帕克赫斯特, 道爾頓制, 新教育, 學科制, laboratory, Parkhurst, Dalton Plan, new education, subject system

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