宜蘭縣國民中學家長參與學校事務之研究 A Study of junior high schools Parent Involvement and the Related Problems in I-Lan County

Abstract
本研究旨在探討國中教育人員與家長對家長參與學校事務的態度、類型及角色層級之看法,並了解家長參與的影響因素及如何有效促進家長參與的方法,進而提出改進國中家長參與學校事務的建議。 研究方法以問卷調查法為主,以自編之「家長參與學校事務調查問卷」為工具,以宜蘭縣國中教育人員與家長為母群體,分層隨機抽取223名教育人員與188名家長進行施測,有效樣本為教育人員201名、家長160名。 所得資料使用次數分配、百分比、卡方檢定及單因子多變項變異數分析等統計方法進行資料分析。 茲歸納本研究的主要結論如下: 一、國中教育人員與家長對家長參與的態度都抱持積極的看法。 二、教育人員對家長參與的態度,因個人變項及學校變項的不同而有差異。 三、家長對家長參與的態度,因個人變項及學校變項的不同而有差異。 四、教育人員對家長參與的類型,因個人變項及學校變項的不同而有差異。 五、家長對家長參與的類型,因個人變項及學校變項的不同而有差異。 六、在家長參與的類型中,以「校務行政決定參與」的看法差異最大。 七、最適合家長參與的角色層級,依序是「支援者」、「溝通者」、「倡議者」、「旁觀者」、「決策者」。 八、家長最適當的參與途徑,多數贊同以「班級」、「學校」家長會參與。 九、影響家長參與的主要因素是「過於忙碌」、「教師與家長缺乏聯繫」、「教師與家長理念不同」、「教師工作繁忙」及「家長欠缺能力與溝通技巧」。 十、促進家長參與的主要因素是「以子女的教育為前提」、「溝通教育理念」、「教師與家長經常聯繫」、「配合家長時間」和「減少教師行政工作」。 根據上述結論,提出以下建議供有關單位及人員參考: 一、對教育行政機關的建議 (一)制定明確的家長參與教育事務法令 (二)表揚及肯定家長付出,並重視家長成長 二、對家長與民間家長團體的建議 (一)有系統的結合民間家長團體,發揮教育影響力 (二)家長應建立正確觀念,投入積極態度,促進教育進步 (三)家長應多關心孩子在學校的表現情形 三、對學校教育人員的建議 (一)辦理親職活動的時間應考慮到家長的方便性 (二)協助教師成立班級親師協會 (三)教師應積極主動與家長聯繫
The main purposes of this study were (1) to explore the opinions of junior high school educators and parents toward parent involvement on attitudes, types and levels of role, (2) to explore the main barriers and the ways to improve parent involvement, (3) to provide suggestions to improve parent involvement. This study used questionnaire survey as main research method and Questionnaire of Parent Involvement in Schools as instrument. The subjects included 223 educators and 188 parents random stratified sampled from junior high schools in I-Lan County. The valid samples were 201 educators and 160 parents. Data were analyed through statistical methods of frequency distribution, percentage, chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA. The main findings were as follows: 1. Both elementary school educators and parents were positive toward parent involvement. 2. The attitudes and types of junior high schools educators toward parent involvement varied with individual and school variables. 3. The attitudes and types of junior high schools parents toward parent in volvement varied with individual and school variables. 4. Among all types of parent involvement,there was the most significant difference in decision-making and advocacy. 5. Among the perspectives of junior high schools educators and parents for parent involvement, the order of the levels of roles was assistant, supporter, advocator, and decision-maker. 6. Among the perspectives of parent involvement, most elementary school educators and parents agreed on Class Parent-Teacher Association and School Parent-Teacher Association. 7. Among the perspectives of parent representatives attending education policy meetings and reviewing teaching proposals, most junior high schools educators and parents agreed on raising proposals and making decisions. 8. The main barriers of parent involvement were too busy, lack of interaction, lack of ability, difficulties to participate, and the differences of belief. 9. The main factors to improve parent involvement were to communicate education believes, to offer educational skills, and to offer important school calendar regularly. Based on the above findings, this study provided some suggestions as follows: A. For education administrative authorities: 1. Enact clear-cut parent involvement regulations. 2. Reduce teachers’ administrative workload. 3. Assist school on parent growth groups and study activities. B. For parents and civil parent groups: 1. Integrate civil parent groups systematically and bring them into the upmost effects. 2. Involve in parent education and growth activities actively. C. For school educators: 1. Consider the convenence of parents when offering educational activities. 2. Assist homeroom teachers to activate Class Parent-Teacher Association. 3. Communicate with parents initiatively and offer proper educational skills.
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Keywords
家長參與, 參與類型, 學校事務, Parent Involvement, perspectives of parent involvement, school affairs
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