從九九運動到運動久久:臺灣體育節的延續與轉變(1941-2010)

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2019

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1941年9月9日,教育部頒布首次修訂之「國民體育法」,結合傳統九九登高習俗,以提倡國民運動風氣及增強國民體質為基礎,並連結紀念孫中山廣州首義的事蹟,選定9月9日為「體育節」,規定需擴大舉辦體育相關活動,然而隨著國民政府接收臺灣,「體育節」在1946年於臺灣展開,直至2010年相關法令廢除,才結束六十餘年的舉辦歲月。本研究欲探討體育節的舉辦緣由與在臺灣的舉辦情形,並藉由法令的修訂及活動形式來探討體育節的舉辦歷程與意義,最後再進一步追尋廢除體育節之原因。經爬梳官方檔案及相關史料,所得研究結果如下:(一)首屆體育節自1942年於大陸舉辦,遵循「體育節(九月九日)舉行辦法要點」向下施行,一方面推廣體育運動,另一方面欲達成「政權認同」之目的。(二)體育節在臺灣的活動舉辦,是由政府啟動再由民間進行配合,於戰後「再中國化」的環境裡,體育節成為藉由體育凝聚人民,進而傳遞官方意識的推手。(三)隨著時代背景的變遷及法令的修訂,體育節宣傳形式與內容已從原先反共抗俄之意識形態逐漸淡化,政府藉由體育資料展覽、體育郵票、全民運動歌等方式,宣達政權統治後,國富民強的意象。(四)體育節之法規廢止緣於其法律授權有效性,此外,時代背景的變遷、使得節日的舉辦淪為形式化。2010年後節日雖然已被廢止,但「體育節」的名義仍時常被使用,成為專屬發揚「體育人」及「體育活動」的精神意象。
On September 9th, 1941, The Ministry of Education enacted “The National Sports Act.”To promote the nation-wide sports atmosphere and to enhance the health of people as the basis and combine the traditional habit/culture of height climbing on ninety-nine “99” and the day of September 9th was decided as “The Sports Festival” and taking place some sports activities on a large scale. When National Government came and took over Taiwan, the Sports Festival spread out in Taiwan starting 1946 and ended up in 2010. The primary subject of the research is to trace the origin of the Sports Festival and the condition to the related activities held in Taiwan. Moreover, to explore history and progress of Sports Festival and the meaning represent through the amendment to the law and the form of the activities. At the last to further seek the reason to abolish the Sports Festival. By renewing the official file and the related historic materials, the following are the outputs of the research.First, the first Sports Festival held in 1942 in Mainland China which was conducted based on “The rule and essential elements for taking place the Sports Festival (September 9th )” and then proceed it accordingly. The government intend to not only promote the sports activities but also want to reach the “recognition to the regime” as the purpose. Seconed,Later on the government initiated the activities of Sports Festival in Taiwan, and the private sectors cooperated it. After World War II, the atmosphere to be “RE-Chineselised” raised again. The consolidation of people was done by having the activities of sports festival become the pusher for the government delivering the official consciences .Third, the type of propaganda and content of Sports Festival has been changed with strong ideology to against Russia and Communist at the beginning and gradually been changed and diluting. The government want to express the wealthy country and the mighty strength of general people in several ways after the consolidation of regime governed.Fourth, The abolishment to The National Sports Act was involved of the effectiveness of authority by law, the The the activities held for the Festival also has become formalized due to the alternation to the background of time. Despite the abolishment of Sports Festival in 2010, the name of the Sports Festival is still be frequently applied and become a spiritual ideology to the implementation of becoming an athlete and sports activities.

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國民體育法, 九九登高, 再中國化, The National Sports Act, height climbing on double ninth, RE-Chineselised

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