海峽兩岸學校素養體育課程發展之研究 A Study of the Competency-Based Curriculum Development of Physical Education on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait Schools

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「核心素養」引發新一輪的全球教育改革,本研究旨在依據古德拉的課程層次理論對比海峽兩岸學校體育素養課程發展情形與異同,了解課程推動路徑與方式,探討課程推動困境與因應。採質性研究中的多重個案研究進行,以「中國健康體育課程模式」、「素養導向體育課程」為雙重個案,立意取樣選擇課程發展團隊核心成員 2 名、體育課程研究專家學者 2 名、踐行素養體育課程之教師 6 名,共 10 名為研究參與者 (兩岸各 5 名)。通過深度訪談法、文件資料法蒐集資料,並採「紮根質性取向」中模版 (預建) 式分析法與持續比較法相結合的資料分析方法。研究結果發現:(一) 兩種課程在各層次間的轉化發生了一定程度的刪減、增加,但未出現嚴重偏差,整體轉化情形較好;相同點包括採用多樣化的教學方式,激發學生興趣的情境創設,不同點包括不同的理念支撐、目標指引、教學要求以及評量方式。(二) 大陸地區採「自下而上」推動路徑:重視體育教師的關鍵角色,關注名師工作室的引領作用,改變「教材-實踐」的推動思路,推動方式為5條主線,多種載體;臺灣地區採「柔性發展」推動路徑:形成三大主軸協調互動,攜手現場體育教師,藉助縣市輔導團力量,推動方式为三大主軸,6個子計畫;(三) 二種課程在推動過程中面臨3個共同困境與6個個別困境,因應方式包括目前已采行與未來待執行。結論如下:(一) 二種課程經歷理想、正式、知覺、運作四個課程層次間的三層轉化,逐步發展完善為符合地區教育環境與政策的素養體育課程;(二) 二種課程重視體育教師的關鍵角色,藉助行政團體的力量,形成雙軸帶動的推動系統及多種推動方式;(三) 推動困境主要來源於教師認同、行政配合、學校推展、研發團隊組成及不可抗拒之因素,因應方式成為未來待解決事宜。建議:(一) 相互借鑒,修正素養體育課程;(二) 紮根基層,深入體育教學現場;(三) 積極因應,了解學生經驗課程。(四) 未來研究建議:關注教師運作課程與學生經驗課程之間轉化情形。
Since Core Competence has triggered a new round of global education reform, under this background, the purpose of this study has compared the development of Competency-based PE curriculum in schools across the Taiwan Strait according to Goodlad's curriculum theory, so as to acknowledge the promotional methods of relevant path and means while exploring the difficulties and solutions. This study adopted multiple case study in qualitative research. By purposive sampling, two core members of the curriculum development team were selected from the dual cases including the "Chinese Health and PE Curriculum Model" and "Competency-based PE Curriculum" along with 2 PE curriculum research experts and scholars as well as 6 PE teachers who were practiced Competency-based PE Curriculum, that was 10 participants in total (each 5 members from cross-Strait). Besides, data were collected through in-depth interviews, documents, and a combination of"grounded qualitative approach" template analysis style method and continuous comparison method was adopted for data analysis. The study findings showed: 1) There was a certain degree of deletion and increase in the transformation between the two courses without other serious deviations, and the overall transformation effect was better. The similarities included the use of diversified teaching methods and the creation of situations that stimulate students’ interest, while the differences included different conceptual support, goal guidance, teaching requirements and assessment methods. 2) The"bottom-up" promotion path in the mainland China was adopted, which emphasizing the key role of PE teachers and the leading role of master teacher studios,and the promotion ideals of "textbook-practice" has been changed.The promotion method was 5 main lines and multiple carriers. By contrast, Taiwan region has applied "flexible development" promotion path, which forming the coordination and interaction of three main axes, working with on-site PE teachers, promoting with the national strength andcity counselling teams. The promotion method was 3 main axes and six sub-projects. 3) There were 3 common conflicts and 6 individual conflicts in the promotion process, while the ways to deal with these dilemmas included the existing ones and the future ones. The Conclusions are derived as follows: 1) The two curriculum have experienced 3 transformations among the four levels of ideal, formal , perceived , operational, then have gradually developed and perfected the Competency-based PE Curriculum in line with the regional educational environment and policies. 2) They two have attached importance to the key role of PE teachers and formed a biaxial driving system as well as a variety of promoting methods under the power of administrative groups. 3) The difficulties mainly come from teachers' recognition, administrative cooperation, school promotion, R&D teams member composition and irresistible factors, also the corresponding ways have become the issues to be resolved in the future. Suggestions:1) Learn from each other and revise the Competency-based PE Curriculum; 2) Take root at the grassroots level and go deep into the PE teaching scene; 3) Positive response to understand students' experience. 4) Suggestions for future research: Pay attention to the transformation between teacher’ operational curriculum and student’ experiential curriculum.
核心素養, 身體素養, 素養導向, 課程發展, 青少年健康, core competence, physical literacy, Competency-based, curriculum development, adolescent health