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本研究旨在調查不同情境下之學校環境噪音的變化情形,並調查教室內麥克風使用對學生學習效果的影響,以及探討學校環境噪音現況對教師與學生主觀性聽覺、生理及心理的影響,用以瞭解學校內部噪音對教師教學品質、學生思考作業與學習效果的影響程度及相關因素,並提出建議。 本研究立意選取台中縣大肚鄉瑞峰國小為研究對象,計有教師六十名,學生四百四十三名,教室兩間。研究方法主要以現場實測、加算作業施測與問卷調查,獲得實驗教室環境噪音、學生加算作業成績,以及教師與學生之問卷資料。研究資料以SPSS/Windows 10.0套裝軟體進行描述性統計、頻率分析、t檢定、變異數分析等方法進行分析,獲得重要結果如下: 一、學校環境噪音實測部分:教室環境之背景噪音,空教室之平均均 能音量為47.4dB(A)與使用情形下之平均均能音量為53.4dB (A),均符合教育部對學校教室背景噪音60dB(A)之建議值。 二、教室使用時,是否有教學活動進行、操場有班級上體育課或其他 活動時,教師是否使用麥克風教學、以及加算作業實驗時,教室 環境噪音變化均達顯著差異。 三、加算作業能力實驗在作業量與正確度方面,均達顯著差異。 四、學校環境噪音現況與教師主觀性生理、心理與教學品質達顯著水 準,與學生主觀性聽覺、生理、心理與學習效果亦達顯著水準。 五、研究對象主觀感覺學校環境噪音非常嚴重,在學校噪音源現況方 面,七成教師與五成學生認為是課間操音樂、廣播系統、鄰班教 師使用麥克風。在學校噪音源的嚴重性與感受度方面,九成教師 認為極嚴重與無法忍受,七成老師曾考慮調職服務。教師使用麥 克風教學方面,有五成教師使用麥克風,未使用者亦有五成考慮 使用。教師使用麥克風教學與否與教師之聽覺、生理、心理狀 況、教學品質未達顯著差異;但與學生之聽覺、生理、心理狀 況、學習效果的影響均達顯著差異(p<.05)。 六、九成教師感覺學校環境噪音對其產生影響,在主觀性聽覺方面有 耳朵不舒服以及下課時與同事談話必須側耳傾聽;主觀性生理方 面容易感覺疲勞,且因外界噪音而講話更大聲致感覺喉嚨不適; 主觀性心理方面感覺心煩與感到無法專心;主觀性教學品質方面 認為學校環境噪音影響教學情形嚴重,且常需提高音量上課或暫 停上課,影響之情形有不能集中精神講課,影響學生聽課專心 度。 七、學校環境噪音問題對學生主觀性聽覺、生理、心理以及學習效果 方面的影響如下:六成感覺耳朵不舒服、近四成容易感覺疲勞與 五成因外界噪音而講話更大聲致感覺喉嚨不適、七成學生感覺注 意力不集中與感覺心情煩躁,以及七成學生認為學校環境噪音影 響學習情形嚴重,不能集中精神注意聽課,與寫功課。 依據本研究結果提出以下幾點建議:在廣播系統與班級教師麥克風使用應審慎、落實環境教育如輕聲細語與慢步活動以及新建學校之建築應考慮選擇吸音素材。並建議未來可朝運動場地設置應考慮空間回響因素方面研究,並期盼能透過本研究讓學校相關人員及所有關心教育者,對學校中的一切教育情境能妥善考慮,以期提供教師與學童一個健康的教與學環境。
The main purposes of this study were to investigate the changes of noises in campus among different situations, the influences of learning effects by using microphones from teachers, and to explore the influences of current noises in subjective audition, physiology and psychology from teachers and students. To understand the correlated factors and influent degree of teaching quality ,logistic test and learning effects in campus noise. The purposive sampling method was adopted in selecting the subjects of 443 students, 60 teachers and 2 classrooms from Rui-Feng elementary school located in Taichung County. The data were collected by on-the-spot measurements, numerical tasks and questionnaires that adopt SPSS/Windows 10.0 version, summary statistics, frequency distribution, paired-samples T test and one-way ANOVA for data analysis. The major results of this study are as follows: 1.After the background noise around classroom measured, the results showed the average unoccupied noise level at classroom was 47.4 dB(A) and occupied noise level on classroom was 53.4 dB(A). Both fits in with the recommended figures of background noise level on classroom by Ministry of Education. 2.The noises around occupied classroom while teaching activity undertaken or not, physical education or any activity proceeded on athletic ground, teachers microphones used or not and numerical tasks, all of them have achieved significant differences. 3.Both of the performance and correct of numerical tasks have achieved significant difference. 4.The current situations of school with subjective physiologically, and psychologic- ally, and teaching quality on teachers, all of them have achieved significant effect. The current situations of school with subjective acoustically, physiologically, psychologically, and learning effect on students, all of them have achieved significant effect. 5.The subjects showed their subjective feeling on the noise of school environment were serious. For the aspects of the sources of the current noise, there are about 70 percent of teachers and 50 percent of students who think it from gymnastics after class, broadcast system, and microphones used by neighboring teachers. For the extent of severity and impression to the origins of noises, there are about 90 percent of teachers think it “very bad” and “cannot stand”, 70 percent of teachers considered transferring to another post. In the aspect of teachers using microphones, there are about 50 percent of teachers had used and nearly a half of unused teachers consider microphone use. Microphone using or not during class has been proved little influences on teachers’ acoustic, physiological, psychological situations and teaching quality. 6.To the effect of the noise from school environment to the influences of subjective feeling with teachers. About 90 percent of teachers feel ear unwell, must talk and listen to their colleagues more attentively, feel tired easily, feel throat unwell because of speaking louder against the noise from outside of the classroom, feel upset and cannot focus, feel attention dispersed and mood fretful, think the noise from school influenced teaching situation so serious and must enhance volume frequently or stop lecturing for the time being. The effect situations including: cannot concentrate on teaching and affect the concentration of students. 7.To the effect of the noise from school environment to the influences of subjective feeling with students. About 60 percent of students feel ear unwell, nearly 40 percent of students feel tired easily, 50 percent of students feel throat unwell because of speaking louder against the noise from outside of the classroom. About 70 percent of students feel attention dispersed and mood fretful. To the influences on learning results of students, about 70 percent of students feel the noise from school influenced learning situations so serious. They cannot concentrate on listening a lecture and doing schoolwork. According to this study and research consequence, we would like to raise suggestions as follows: at broadcast system and microphones using of teachers must be careful, executing education of environment, such as speaking softly and walking slowly, and building up schools with the selections of the materials of absorbing noise. Future I suggest to face sports ground for reducing the reverberation problem. Furthermore, we hope through this study that the correlated personnel of schools and those are concerned about education can think of the appropriate occasions for education, so that we can expect to provide a healthy teaching and learning environment for teachers and students.