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戰後初期是臺灣歷史中一段非常特殊的年代,適逢「日本」與「中國」政權交替的過渡階段,筆者以此為研究背景,關心當時體育運動的發展,進行深入的討論。相關的文獻中,均無詳細而有系統的記載,因此有必要回顧過往,將此段空白處做填補,此為本研究之目的。 本論文採歷史研究法和訪談法的方式,將資料予以整理及歸納,加以分析考察。經研究發現,得悉以下結果:在學校體育方面,教育部頒定的課程標準,是各級學校的依循方箴,體育正課與體育正課以外是主要內容;師資因日人遣返,出現大量師資缺口,多以中國人士進行補充;體育教材非常匱乏,多為教師自編;體育軍事化與體育教育化的取向頗為顯現;學校體育活動如運動會,多配合特定國訂節日經常辦理,如青年節、兒童節、體育節、國慶日和光復節等等。因應「光復」而生,臺灣省運動會成為最重要,規模最盛大的運動賽會,此時期共舉行了四次,不僅帶動了臺灣體育風氣,更傳達了為政治服務的目的。在體育行政組織方面,中央有教育部的體育委員會,臺灣則成立了國民體育委員會,可惜效率並不彰,多靠民間社會體育組織的推展,最顯著的例子就是臺灣省體育會,推行各地大小運動賽事(人物/職業/機關團體為名之體育活動、縣市、區域的比賽及國內外體育交流賽三大類)並於特定的國定節日中相繼進行,是推動社會體育的最佳推手。在場地設備方面,囿於戰事影響,外在環境不良,體育運動設施並不多,因陋就簡,從資料的顯示可知,臺北市可說是戰後初期的體育中心。1948年臺灣與中國大陸在同一個「國家」體制架構下,透過體育賽事的交鋒相互競逐,除了成績斐然之外,背後彰顯的卻是執政者加強民族與國家意識的最佳場域,特殊的歷史意涵,更顯出其極具有劃時代的意義。 總結地說,戰後初期在全面「中國化」浪潮的席捲下,政治力介入影響,凌駕了一切,體育運動自然受其左右,不論在學校體育課程標準、師資、行政組織與設施場地規範皆和中國接軌;亦或社會體育活動的辦理,在目的、內容及運作過程中,建構添加許多政略操控,巧妙地接續中國與臺灣彼此的連結,「中國化」的質素被帶進臺灣文化之中,「中國化」的影子呈顯於歷史脈動之內。透過身體活動做為舞臺,醞釀製造一個「民族國家」的想像戲碼,尤以第七屆全國運動會臻於頂點,一場以運動為手段的大集會,因為海峽兩岸的人民實際面對面的交流,使得原本抽象的認同主體得以落實,背後國家統一至上的信念,亦是形塑的最佳投射場域。
The early postwar years between 1945 and 1949 were an unusual time in Taiwan’s history. It was a time of political transition when Japan transferred over its sovereignty of Taiwan to China. Based on this political shift, this research was an in-depth study on the development of sports in Taiwan during that political transition era. There were not very many records about the sports activities during that period. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to discover the facts and historical events during the period and to fill in that historical void. This research was based on studies of historical records and interviews. This information is organized and consolidated for analysis and examination. The research discovered the following conclusion. Physical education in all levels of school followed the guideline issued by the Ministry of Education. Due to the repatriation of Japanese citizens, there was a serious shortage of PE teachers. These vacancies were mostly filled by teachers from the mainland China. In conjunction, there were very few teaching materials; teachers had to write and edit their own textbooks. The most prominent format of PE education was based on militaristic ideal. Many sports functions at schools were held on national holidays, such as the Youth Day, Children’s Day, Physical Education Day, and Taiwan’s Retrocession Day. As for official administration, there was the Sports Affairs Council under the Ministry of Education and the Nationals Sports Affairs Council under Taiwan Province. Due to lack of efficiency of the Councils, sports events were mostly sponsored by non-government organizations. The primary non-government organization was the Taiwan Province Sports Committee (TPSC). This committee was involved in sports functions of any size (events in honor of celebrities / jobs / organizations, events for different cities, and international events). The TPSC served as the best marketer of community sports activities. As for infrastructure, there were not enough sports facilities available due to the postwar recovery and lack of local support. The historical records indicated that Taipei was the center of all sports activities during this early postwar era. In 1948, Taiwan andthe mainland China were “one nation.” With the underlying fierce competition between these two political entities, the sports field became an ideal place to display both governments’ strong sense of nationalism. Since the “retrocession of Taiwan,” the Taiwan Province Sports Games became the most important and the biggest event of all, and the sports games were held four times during this period. These events not only promoted a sport fashion around the island but also served as a political agenda. In summary, in the early postwar period, Sinicization became the main trend that politics overrode everything else. Everything was in line with mainland China, including the PE curriculum, PE teacher qualifications, sports administration, sports field facilities and norms. Under the cover of an ordinary sports game, political manipulation cleverly connected China and Taiwan. “Sinicization” was introduced to the Taiwanese culture and became part of the history. Through physical activities, an imaginary play of “one nation” was secretly put on show, with the 7th National Sports Games as the climax of all this. People on both sides of Taiwan Strait worked or competed side by side so that the “one nation” identity was realized.



光復, 臺灣省體育會, 臺灣省運動會, 第七屆全國運動會, retrocession, Taiwan Province Sports Committee, Taiwan Province Sports Games, The 7th National Sports Games