以撞擊聲音評估高爾夫擊球表現之研究 A Study to Evaluate Golf Shot Performance by Impact Sound

Date
2013
Authors
鍾寶弘
Chung, Pao-hung
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Abstract
高爾夫揮桿擊球時球桿與球撞擊所產生的聲音,已被廣泛地應用於驗證電腦模擬與實際桿頭設計的關聯性,或是建立好聽擊球品質的依據,但過去並沒有研究探討高爾夫擊球表現與撞擊聲音特徵的關聯性。因此,本研究目的是探討在高爾夫擊球時,球桿與球撞擊所產生的聲音與擊球表現之相關,並比較使用不同木桿與鐵桿,以正常與較慢速度擊球,在撞擊聲音、擊球表現與自我知覺之差異。20名大專甲組水準(差點範圍5±3)之右打高爾夫運動員為本實驗受試者,在室內場地進行2回合木桿與鐵桿的正常與較慢速度擊球測試。以擊球表現監視系統分析桿頭速度與球初速度、水平傾角、後旋速度、偏轉角度與擊球距離,並以麥克風與頻譜分析系統,進行碰撞聲音的持續時間、音量、響度、尖銳度、音高、音色、密度等特徵的分析。以二因子(球桿×速度)變異數分析來比較四種不同球桿以正常與較慢速度擊球,在自我知覺、擊球位置、擊球表現、撞擊聲音之差異,再以皮爾遜積差相關來比較擊球表現與撞擊聲音之相關。相關較高的撞擊聲音特徵將進行線性多元逐步迴歸來預測擊球表現,以找出適當的預測因子與公式。結果顯示,木桿與鐵桿在撞擊聲音有差異,正常與較慢速擊球也會對撞擊聲音產生影響。使用不同鐵桿皆可使用撞擊聲音的響度、持續時間、尖銳度來預測桿頭速度、球初速度、距離;木桿會因不同的球桿特性而有不同的撞擊聲音預測變項。若是單純預測擊球距離,則以撞擊聲音的響度為預測變項,並使用相同的迴歸公式就可同時預測木桿與鐵桿的擊球距離。本研究結果預期可提供高爾夫教練與運動員,可以撞擊聲音來評估擊球表現優劣的指標。
The impact sound of golf shot has been applied to verify the relevance between the computer simulation and the real design of clubhead, or to establish the basis of sound quality, but fewer previous studies were to investigate the relevance between the impact sound and the performance of golf shot. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the impact sound and the performance of golf shot, and also to compare the difference of impact sound, performance and perception of golf shot with woods and irons in normal and slow swing speed. Twenty division I college golf players (handicap: 5±3) were recruited as subjects. All participants conducted two trials of golf shot with woods and irons in normal and slow swing speed at an indoor venue. An indoor golf simulator was used to analyze the club speed, ball speed, estimated distance, launch angle, backspin velocity and azimuth angle, and a microphone and a spectrum analyzer were used to analyze the duration, volume, loudness, sharpness, pitch, timbre, density of impact sound. Two-way (club × speed) ANOVA was used to compare the contact position, impact sound, performance and perception of golf shot with four different clubs in normal and slow swing speed. Pearson's product-moment correlation was used to compare the relationship between the impact sound and the performance of golf shot, and then the higher correlation factor of impact sound would be conducted the linear multiple regression to predict the performance of golf shot. The results showed that woods and irons would produce different impact sound, and normal and slow swing speed would also influence the impact sound. The club speed, ball speed and estimated distance of irons could be predicted effectively by the loudness, duration, sharpness of impact sound; woods had different predictors due to different sound characteristics. If want to predict the estimated distance isolated, the loudness of impact sound could be used as the predictor in both woods and irons and with the same regression formula. This study would provide a novel way to evaluate the performance of golf shot by impact sound for golf coaches and athletes.
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Keywords
振動, 高爾夫球桿, 頻譜分析, 響度, vibration, frequency spectrum, golf club, loudness
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