微型創業者的創業資源、工作壓力與堅毅人格、社會支持對工作倦怠之相關研究

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2011

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研究目的:本研究主要從資源保存理論觀點,探討影響微型創業者工作倦怠之相關因素,研究目的有五:1.探討不同人口背景變項之微創者在工作倦怠上的差異;2.探討不同工作壓力程度與創業資源多寡對微創者在工作倦怠上的差異;3.探討創業資源、工作壓力、堅毅人格、社會支持與工作倦怠的關聯性;4.探討微創者在面對工作環境中的創業資源、工作壓力與其所具備的堅毅人格、社會支持對工作倦怠的預測力;5.探討堅毅人格與社會支持對微創者在工作壓力與工作倦怠是否有調節效果。 研究方法:本研究採用立意取樣,研究參與者共305位,主要為參加管科會舉辦之創業輔導課程的微型創業者。採用的研究工具內容包含基本資料、工作壓力量表、創業資源量表、堅毅人格量表、社會支持量表及工作倦怠量表。根據研究目的以變異數分析、皮爾森積差相關及階層迴歸分析之統計方法進行假設考驗。 研究結果:1.年齡越大、已婚或創業前工作年資較資深之微創者的工作倦怠較低;2.創業資源雖不具調節工作壓力與工作倦怠之效果,然高創業資源比低創業資源之微創者有較低的倦怠,且低工作壓力比高工作壓力之微創者有較低的倦怠;3.創業資源越多、工作壓力越小、堅毅人格越高及社會支持越高,則微創者之工作倦怠越低;4.堅毅人格(主要為投入感與挑戰感)與社會支持(主要為實質性支持)可有效減低工作倦怠,工作壓力(主要為角色壓力)會顯著增加工作倦怠,反而個人責任會顯著減少倦怠感,至於創業資源的顯著性則因堅毅人格的投入而被排除;5.堅毅人格與其中的投入感、挑戰感能有效調節工作壓力與工作倦怠之關係;6.社會支持與其所包含的情感性、實質性及訊息性支持無法有效調節工作壓力與工作倦怠之關係。 結論:研究者根據研究結果針對實務提出三點建議:1.增加創業前的工作經驗與社會磨練、強化可提升組織效率的組織資本以及主動爭取親友的實質性支持以加強能有效減低倦怠之外在資源;2.為減少角色所帶來的壓力,建議微創者增進自我覺察能力以了解自我在角色負荷上的有限性與對滿足不同需求的重要性做排序,並採用有效的問題解決方式,如尋求支持、蒐集資訊、計畫式的問題解決等;3.建議微創者學習從壓力情境中找尋意義感,及其從壓力事件中可獲得學習與成長的價值,以培養正向的思考與態度來因應壓力。最後,亦提出本研究限制與對未來研究方向的建議。
Purposes of Research The research, which is conducted based on the conservation of resource theory, aims at having a deeper understanding of the factors for micro entrepreneurs’ job burnout. The five purposes of the research are as follows. 1. To find out the differences of micro entrepreneurs’ job burnout when the different background of population is variable. 2. To find out the differences of micro entrepreneurs’ job burnout under different level of job stress or different amount of entrepreneurial resources. 3. To find out the relevance between job burnout and entrepreneurial resources, job stress, personality hardiness, and social support. 4. To understand the predictability for micro entrepreneurs’ job burnout based on the entrepreneurial resources, job stress, personality hardiness, and social support they have. 5. To find out whether personality hardiness or social support would moderate micro entrepreneurs’ job stress or job burnout. Research Method The research adopts purposive sampling. There were 305 research participants; most of them are micro entrepreneurs who had attended the entrepreneur guidance program held by the Chinese Management Association. Research tools used in this research include questionnaire for profile, job stress inventory, entrepreneurial resources inventory, personality hardiness inventory, social support inventory, and job burnout inventory. Based on the purposes of research, hypothesis testing has been conducted by applying analysis of variance, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and hierarchical regression analysis. Research Results 1. The level of job burnout is lower when the micro entrepreneur is elder, married, or has more years of work experience before starting the business. 2. Entrepreneurial resources don’t moderate job stress or job burnout. However, entrepreneurs with more entrepreneurial resources have lower level of job burnout compared with those who have less entrepreneurial resources. Micro entrepreneurs with less job stress also have lower level of job burnout. 3. With more entrepreneurial resources, less job stress, higher personality hardiness, and more social support, micro entrepreneurs’ level of job burnout would be lower. 4. Personality hardiness (mainly the sense of involvement and challenge) and social support (mainly tangible support) can effectively ease job burnout. Also, personal responsibility lowers job burnout, too. Job stress (mainly role stress), on the other hand, significantly increases job burnout. The significance of entrepreneurial resources has been ruled out because of the sense of involvement part of personality hardiness. 5. Personality hardiness and the sense of involvement and challenge included can effectively moderate the correlation between job stress and job burnout. 6. Social support and the emotional support, tangible support, and informational support included cannot effectively moderate the correlation between job stress and job burnout. Conclusion There are three suggestions for the practice based on the research results. 1. To gain more work experience, to strengthen organizational capital, and take the initiative to seek for family and friends’ tangible support in order to have more external resources. 2. To strengthen self-perception ability in order to understand one’s limitation of role load and to make order for the needs based on their importance in order to solve problems effectively; e.g. to look for support or collect data to ease role stress. 3. To learn to find the sense of significance and the worthiness to learn and grow even in stress situation in order to think positively when dealing with stress. Limitation of the research and suggestions for future related research are also included.

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資源保存, 微型創業, 工作倦怠, 創業資源, 堅毅人格, 社會支持, 工作壓力, conservation of resource, microbusiness entrepreneurship, job burnout, entrepreneurial resources, personality hardiness, social support, job stress

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