台語連詞kap副詞ê研究--兼論語言接觸下ê變化

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2014

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本研究透過日治時期語料分別探討台語連詞kap副詞ê語意類型以及相關句式、用法,同時討論連詞kap副詞之間ê關聯性。最後,透過詞頻表現觀察連詞kap副詞tī現代台語內底ê變化kap發展。 台語tī過去百外冬來bat分別kap日語以及華語有過長期koh頻繁ê接觸,語言接觸ê結果,通常會帶來詞彙ê移借。根據Thomason& Kaufman(1988)ê「Borrowing scale」,tī接觸ê第二个坎站,也就是tī語言接觸khah頻繁小可ê階段,虛詞內底ê連詞kap副詞就會開始進入詞彙ê移借。但是,一直以來ê台語借詞ê相關研究lóng顯示台語真少移借虛詞。 另外一方面,就語言本身ê角度來講,連詞kap副詞之間一直存在oh--tit區別ê事實,tse相對mā代表in之間ê關係是密切ê。M̄-kú,一直以來ê連詞kap副詞ê研究lóng是連詞huān連詞,副詞huān副詞,真少kā in khǹg做伙討論,準做有khǹg做伙研究,mā是將視點khǹg tī按怎去將連詞kap副詞區別清楚,相對就忽略in之間hit層密切ê關係。Thomason & Kaufman語言接觸ê理論引起筆者同時探討連詞kap副詞ê動機,連詞kap副詞本身oh-tit區分ê事實支持筆者同時將連詞kap副詞納入研究ê必要性kap合理性。 本研究發現,台語ê連詞kap副詞之間tī句ê層次有真bā ê關係,in tī句法頂面有真kuân ê詞類兼類ê「共用」現象,tī句式頂面tsia̍p-tsia̍p「同現」,共同經營句意。因為這層密切ê語法關係,可能hōo連詞kap副詞tī移借ê過程產生一定程度ê關聯性,間接呼應Thomason& Kaufman(1988)ê理論。結果,咱發現,確實tī語言接觸真早期ê階段,日語kap華語ê連詞iah-sī副詞就開始進入台語。日語連詞因為欠缺漢字表記ê形態並無進入台語,日語副詞tī日本統治ê第二个十冬就進入移借ê高峰期;華語連詞kap副詞則是tī國民黨政府來台灣ê頭一个十冬就陸續進入台語。 日語ê副詞以及華語ê連詞kap副詞進入台語連詞kap副詞部門了後,kap原底ê詞彙之間有競爭mā有融合。整體來講,台語連詞kap副詞ê變化kap發展,因為kap華語頻繁ê接觸關係,受著華語真大ê影響。咱發現,nā是hit組類義詞群內底有包含台、華同形詞,hit个同形詞有真大ê機會會成做使用頻率siōng kuân ê詞,相對,類義詞群內底假使已經存在高使用率ê台、華同形詞,就連帶阻止華語借詞ê移入。雖罔台、華同形詞tī台語詞彙發展內底佔優勢,m̄-kú,猶原有例外,有濟濟台、華同形詞意外失落。文言詞tī現代台語文內底整體有明顯失落ê趨勢,卻是有一寡詞因為kap華語同形得著保存。
The study will analyze Taiwanese conjunctions and adverbs, and the correlation between conjunctions and adverbs in terms of semantic typology, syntax, and usage, by exploring Taiwanese data during Japanese colonization. We will observe their change and development in modern Taiwanese through their lexical frequency. In the past decades, Taiwanese has had frequent contact with Japanese and Mandarin. The result of language contact usually leads to lexical borrowings. According to Thomason& Kaufman (1988), in the second steps of borrowing scale, or in the beginning of the less frequency of the contact, the conjunctions and adverbs will begin to be borrowed by the target language. Nevertheless, related studies about Taiwanese loanwords have shown few function words. On the other hand, conjunctions and adverbs are actually difficult to distinguish in terms of linguistic fact. Our study shows that they have close relations on the contrary. But,most studies have put more emphasis on how to make a clear cut between them rather than recognizing their close relationship. Thomason& Kaufman’s language contact theory motivated me to studying Taiwanese conjunctions and adverbs in order to find out answers for their relationship of closeness. Results show that Taiwanese conjunctions have a very close relationship with adverbs in that they frequently co-exist and share usage at sentence level to manage meaning. Given the close syntactic relation, we hypothesized that during the process of borrowing they should have developed some degree of correlation during early contact. This could echo Thomason& Kaufman’s theory. In addition, we find that Japanese adverbs and Mandarin conjunctions and adverbs were borrowed into Taiwanese in the early stage of contact. Japanese conjunctions were not borrowed into Taiwanese due to the lack of sharing Chinese characters. Japanese adverbs have been borrowed into Taiwanese and reached its peak in the second decade. Mandarin conjunctions and adverbs were borrowed into Taiwanese continually during the first decade of the Chinese government invasion of Taiwan. There were a competition and a merging between Japanese adverbs and Mandarin conjunctions and adverbs. Generally speaking, Taiwanese conjunctions and adverbs have some changes and develop due to frequent contact with Mandarin. In other words, there is a significant influence of Mandarin. We find that if the Taiwanese counterparts share the same Chinese characters, they have better chances of becoming a frequent usage and hinder the borrowing from Mandarin. Although the words with shared characters have advantage there are exceptions, which were also lost.The literary lexical items have an obvious tendency to become lost, and on the contrary some words are kept because they share the same characters with Mandarin.

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台語連詞, 台語副詞, 虛詞移借, 語言接觸, Taiwanese conjunctions, Taiwanese adverbs, borrowing of function words, language contact

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