大學生全人教育之參與經驗與素養發展關係研究:以國立臺灣師範大學為例

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2015

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本研究旨在探討大學生全人教育之參與經驗與素養發展之關係,研究問題包括:(一)國內外大學全人教育的重要理念與實施方式為何?(二)本研究大學生參與正式課程、非正式課程、潛在課程之全人教育經驗為何?不同個人因素的大學生全人素養是否有顯著差異?以及(三)本研究大學生個人因素、全人教育參與經驗與素養發展之關係為何?最後,提出未來在大學校園中促進學生全人發展的建議,提供師生及行政人員參考。 研究方法以量化為主,質化為輔。量化研究運用問卷調查法,以校園衝擊理論等為基礎編製問卷,其中個人因素包括性別、學院、年級、家庭背景、住宿情況、工讀經驗、宗教信仰、志願服務經驗、學業成績以及健康狀況,全人教育參與經驗包括正式課程(學習態度、學習滿意度)、非正式課程(學術相關活動、藝文相關活動、身心成長活動參與經驗)以及潛在課程與校園文化(學校支持系統、校園環境氛圍、師生互動、同儕關係滿意度)的參與經驗,全人素養包括國際視野、創新領導與問卷解決、社會關懷與公民實踐、美感體驗與品味生活、多元文化、環保意識、主動探究、溝通表達與團隊合作、健康管理、批判反思、科學思辨、人文涵養、資訊素養、靈性思維、終身學習。 研究對象為國立臺灣師範大學大學部學生,採取分層比例抽樣,取樣人數為640人。質化研究則針對量化研究發現的問題,透過深度訪談加以釐清:(一)學生心目中的全人素養有哪些?(二)比較強的素養,是受到哪些個人或校園因素影響?(三)比較弱的素養,是受到哪些個人或校園因素影響,並且希望學校提供什麼樣的資源與幫助?訪談對象乃依據問卷調查結果,選取13位學生進行訪談。 本研究結果發現: 一、歸納國內外全人教育理念,發現臺灣與中國重視個人達到五育均衡發展,歐美及日本強調全宇思維的永續樂活精神。臺灣全人教育的理念可分為「德、智、體、群、美五育均衡」、「生命、生活、生涯三生教育實踐」、「天、人、物、我的和諧關係」以及「身、心、靈健全整合」四大向度。 二、國內、外均透過博雅教育或通識教育課程,作為達成全人教育主要途徑之一,並透過正式課程、非正式課程與潛在課程進行方案或環境規劃。 三、大學生個人因素,以t檢定與ANOVA單因子變異數分析在全人素養中的差異,發現性別、學院、年級、住宿經驗、工讀經驗達顯著差異,其中校外工讀經驗對全人素養的負面影響較大。 四、 透過多元迴歸分析,探討個人因素對於全人教育參與經驗的解釋力,發現個人因素對於正式課程參與經驗解釋力為25.2%、非正式課程參與經驗解釋力為15.6%、潛在課程與校園文化解釋力為23.1%,其中學院、年級、住宿經驗、工讀經驗、學業成績、健康狀況皆具解釋力,其中又以學院及健康狀況的影響最大。 五、透過階層迴歸分析,探討個人因素、全人教育參與經驗對於全人素養的整體解釋力為35.8%,其中學院、年級、健康狀況、學習態度、學習滿意度、藝文相關活動、身心成長活動、學校支持系統、校園環境氛圍、師生互動、同儕關係皆具顯著解釋力,其中又以潛在課程的經驗影響最大。透過逐步迴歸分析,發現「師生互動」、「同儕關係」、「藝文相關活動」、「身心成長活動」以及「健康狀況」是影響全人素養最重要的因素。 六、質性訪談包括學生對於全人素養與影響因素的看法,結果歸納如下: (一)學生認為全人素養,應包含「生活知能與生活管理」、「專業知識技能」以及「家庭關係經營」。 (二)學生認為全人教育參與經驗中,特別是正式課程中的通識課程、體育課程、服務學習課程,非正式課程中的社團活動、身心成長活動,以及潛在課程中的師生互動、同儕關係格外重要。 (三)不同主修領域的同學,對於通識教育的看法不同;且不同校區資源分配不均,影響學生全人教育參與經驗及滿意度,亦會影響全人素養。
The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlated factors with the participation experiences in holistic education and literacy development of college students. The research questions included: 1.What are the important concepts and embodiments of holistic education in domestic and foreign universities? 2.What are the students’ participation experiences in holistic education within the formal curriculum, the informal curriculum, and the hidden curriculum? Were there any significant differences in holistic literacy among those different individual factors? 3.What are the correlated factors with the experiences in holistic education and literacy development of college students? Finally, the researcher offers his conclusions and suggestions based on results from the teachers, students and related staff in schools. The research data was collected by using both quantitative and qualitative methods. All study participations completed a self-developed questionnaire, which consisted the holistic education experience scale, the holistic literacy scale, and the demographic background survey. Based on the theories and research studies of campus impact model, the questionnaire was developed by the researcher. The model consisted of three parts: the demographic information, the holistic scale, and the holistic literacy scale. The demographic information includes gender, college, grade, family socioeconomic status, lodging experience, part time experience, religious belief, volunteer service experience, learning achievement, and health status. The holistic education scale includes formal curriculum (learning attitude, learning satisfaction), the informal curriculum (the experiences of academic activities, arts-related activities, physical and mental growth activities), and the hidden curriculum (the satisfaction of school support systems, campus environment and atmosphere, teacher-student interaction, peer relationships) and the last part of the model contains the holistic literacy outcomes including global perspectives, innovative leadership and problem solving, social concerns and citizenship practice, aesthetics and taste, multicultural literacy, environmental awareness, active exploration, communication and collaboration, health management, critical thinking, scientific thinking, humanistic literacy, information literacy, spirituality thinking, and lifelong learning. The participants of this research study were 640 students recruited from National Taiwan Normal University by the stratified proportional sampling method. After analyzing the quantitative data, a qualitative interview was conducted with the 13 students who were selected based on the high and low degree of their holistic literacy grades. The questions needed to be supplemented and explained because the results of the quantitative survey could not answer. Those questions were: (1) What is the holistic literacy in students’ mind? (2) Which literacy is superior? What / how factors are related to learning? (3) Which literacy is inferior? What / how factors are related to learning? Were there any school resources available that can help learning? The findings of the research are: 1.Taiwan and China has focused on the belief of Five Ways of Life (moral, intellectual, physical, social / labor, and aesthetic) on holistic education for a long time; but Europe and Japan has focused on the belief of Worldview, Spiritual and LOHAS thinking. There are four main viewpoints about holistic man in Taiwan, i.e.: (1) moral + intellectual + physical + social + aesthetic abilities; (2) life education + behavior education + career education; (3) heaven + human beings + materials + ourselves; (4) spirit + soul + mind + body. 2.Domestic and foreign universities mainly promote holistic education with formal curriculums, informal curriculum and the hidden curriculum in liberal or general education. 3.With t-test and ANOVA one-way analysis of variance, gender, college, lodging experience, and part time experience, approach the significant level in holistic literacy. The strongest factor is the outside school part time experience but negative. 4.With multiple regression analysis, the college, grade, lodging experience, part time experience, learning achievement and health status can predict effectively their holistic participation experiences, and the coefficient of determination is 15.6% to 25.2%. The strongest factor is college and health status. 5.With hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the students’ backgrounds (college of arts, grade, health status), formal curriculum (learning attitudes, and learning satisfaction), informal curriculum (the participation experiences of art-related activities, physical and mental growth activities) and hidden curriculum (the satisfaction of school support systems, campus environment and atmosphere, teacher-student interaction, peer relationships) can predict effectively their holistic literacy, and the coefficient of determination is 35.8%. The strongest factor is the experiences of hidden curriculum. With stepwise regression analysis, the satisfaction of teacher-student interaction and peer relationships, the participation experiences of art-related activities and physical and mental growth activities; and the health status are the stronger factors. 6.The qualitative findings are: (1)In students’ opinions, the holistic literacy might include “life knowledge and management”, “profession knowledge and skills” and “family engagement”. (2)The experiences of formal curriculum (general education curriculum, physical education curriculum, Service-Learning program), informal curriculum (students clubs and societies, physical and mental growth activities) and hidden curriculum (teacher-student interaction, peer relationships) are important factors for holistic education participation experiences. (3)Different college students had different viewpoints on general education. Different campuses have different resources, which may not only affect the experiences and satisfaction of holistic education but also the holistic literacy.

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大學生, 全人教育, 校園參與經驗, 全人素養, 全人發展, 成功學習, College / University Students, Holistic Education, Experiences of Campus Participation, Holistic Literacy, Holistic Develpment, Learning Success

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