跆拳道兩種空中兩腳旋踢之運動學分析

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2004

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本研究以國內跆拳道選手九名為受試對象,針對選手在兩種空中兩腳旋踢動作時所收集到之運動學參數為主要的研究範圍。研究目的是:分析國內跆拳道選手在兩種空中兩腳旋踢動作之運動學參數,比較其差異。提供教練和選手在教學與訓練時的參考,提昇跆拳道技術水準。本實驗所得的影像資料,透過APAS System 影像擷取軟體將之轉換成Kwon 3D 動作分析系統可讀取之壓縮格式,再由Kwon 3D動作分析系統進行直接線性轉換(DLT)與各參數的運算。本研究所得參數資料之統計分析皆以SPSS10 for windows統計軟體進行相依樣本t-test統計分析後,經結果與討論得到以下結論: 一、反應時間由快到慢依序排列為:上端空中兩腳旋踢<中端空中兩腳旋踢<空中兩腳旋踢<後旋踢<下壓踢。攻擊時間由快到慢依序排列為:後旋踢<下壓踢<空中兩腳旋踢<中端空中兩腳旋踢<上端空中兩腳旋踢。 二、攻擊腿足尖踢擊高度(垂直位移)上,上端空中兩腳旋踢高於中端空中兩腳旋踢;在攻擊距離(水平位移)上,中端空中兩腳旋踢遠於上端空中兩腳旋踢;在足尖合位移上,上端空中兩腳旋踢大於中端空中兩腳旋踢。 三、身體重心合位移上,上端空中兩腳旋踢大於中端空中兩腳旋踢。 四、受試者中端和上端空中兩腳旋踢攻擊腿踢擊過程各關節的線性速度與肢段角速度是兩者皆符合人體動力鏈順序原理。 五、在騰空期內肩-髖軸角度變化較大的受試者會有較佳的踢擊速度表現;在兩者比較上騰空期內肩-髖軸角度變化是上端空中兩腳旋踢大於中端空中兩腳旋踢。 建議:反應時間的訓練應列為跆拳道選手訓練課程的重點,並且精熟各踢擊動作的要領以減少攻擊時間;在訓練時增加軀幹的肌力訓練和各關節的柔軟度,可加大攻擊範圍和避免運動傷害;加強轉身、跳躍、上端踢擊動作的訓練,以符合未來比賽的趨勢。
The purpose of this study is to analyze two kinds of jump double roundhouse kicks in Taekwondo. Nine taekwondo athletes in Taiwan were served as subjects for this study. Two JVC 9800 digital cameras were used to videotape the kicking movements. APAS software was used to capture the images into the computer. The selected kinematics variables were analyzed by using Kwon 3D software. The 3D coordinates were obtained by using the direct linear transformation (DLT) method, and a paired t-test was used to test the difference between two kicking movements by using SPSS10 for Windows. The results were listed as follows: 1.The ranking of reacting time from fast to slow was: upper< middle < jump double roundhouse kick< spin-whip round kick< axe kick. The ranking of attack time from fast to slow was: spin-whip kick< axe kick<jump double < middle <upper roundhouse kick. 2.In the kicking height (vertical displacement) and the displacement of toe, upper roundhouse kick was longer than middle roundhouse kick. However, the kicking distance (horizontal displacement) was on the contrary. 3.In the displacement of center of mass (CM), upper roundhouse kick was larger than middle roundhouse kick. 4.The joints linear velocity and the angle velocity of kicking limb section during the upper and middle roundhouse kicks of the subjects both followed the principle of kinetic chain. 5.The subject with larger change of shoulder-hip axis angle during air flight time had a better performance of kicking velocity; in the change of shoulder-hip axis angle during air flight time, upper was larger than middle roundhouse kick. Recommendations: Reacting time should be listed as key point in the training of taekwondo athletes who should be proficient in the main points of each kicking motions to reduce attack time; increase torso force training and joints flexibility to enlarge attack range and avoid sport injury; enhance the training of turning, jumping and upper kicking to match the trend of future competition.

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跆拳道, 空中兩腳旋踢, 生物力學, 運動學, taekwondo, jump double roundhouse kick, biomechanics, kinematic

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