客觀表現與社會比較對青少年自尊的預測

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2009

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本研究是在探討青少年自尊的預測,主要目的有五項:(一)了解青少年在「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」等方面的客觀表現,對自尊的預測力。(二)了解青少年在「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」等方面的社會比較,對自尊的預測力。(三)了解青少年在「家庭因素」方面的社會比較,對自尊的預測力。(四)了解在「個人因素」社會比較之外,加上「家庭因素」之社會比較後,對自尊的預測力是否增加。(五)了解青少年在「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」三方面客觀表現與社會比較,兩者對自尊之相對預測力如何。 本研究採用問卷調查法資料蒐集,所使用的研究工具包括「青少年社會比較量表」、「外表評價量表」、「同儕關係量表」、「原生家庭榮耀羞恥量表」、「自尊量表」。研究樣本為桃園縣、台北市、彰化縣三所國民中學的二、三年級學生,共計178名。所得的資料以因素分析、皮爾森積差相關、階層迴歸分析、多元迴歸分析、描述統計等統計方法加以處理。 本研究分為客觀表現「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」三項指標與社會比較「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」、「家庭狀況」四項指標,對青少年的自尊預測做探討。綜合研究結果,本研究主要發現如下: 一、「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」三項客觀表現對「自尊」有預測力。 二、「學業成績」、「外表評價」、「同儕關係」三項社會比較對「自尊」有預測力。 三、「家庭因素」之社會比較可以增加「個人因素」之社會比較對自尊的預 測力。 四、七個因素中,「同儕關係社會比較」、「家庭狀況社會比較」、「外表評價社會比較」對自尊的預測力最高。 五、社會比較因素對自尊的預測力大於客觀表現因素對自尊的預測力。 最後,研究者根據研究結果,提出具體建議,以做為未來相關研究與青少年教育輔導的參考。
This study aims to examine the prediction of self-esteem from objective and social comparison variables in adolescents. The main five purposes of this study are: (1) to explore to what extent the objective measures of academic achievement, appearance evaluation and peer relationship can predict self-esteem in adolescents; (2) to explore how academic achievement, appearance evaluation and peer relationship as measured in terms of social comparison can predict self-esteem in adolescents; (3) to examine how family factor in terms of social comparison can predict self-esteem in adolescents; (4) to examine the increase in predictive power after the family factor is added to the individual social comparison factors; (5) to determine the relative predictive powers of objective and social comparison variables on self-esteem. The present study used questionnaire method to collect data. Five measures were adopted, including Adolescents Social-Comparison Scale, Appearance Evaluation Scale, Peer Relationship Scale, the Family-of-Origin Glory and Shame Scale, and Self-Esteem Scale. The participants were 178 second-grade and third-grade junior high school students from three schools in Taoyuan County, Taipei City and Changhua County. The data obtained in this study were analyzed by factor analysis, Pearson correlation, hierarchical regression, multiple regression analysis, and descriptive statistics. In this study, the three measures of the objective performances are academic achievement, appearance evaluation and peer relationship. The four measures of social comparison are academic achievement, appearance evaluation, peer relationship and family. The study is to investigate the prediction of adolescents’ self-esteem from these measures. The results of this study are as follows: 1.The 3 objective variables, academic achievement, appearance evaluation and peer relationship have predictive powers on self-esteem. 2.The 3 social comparison variables, academic achievement, appearance evaluation, peer relationship and family have predictive powers on self-esteem. 3.The prediction of self-esteem made by individual social comparison factors can be enhanced with the addition of the family social comparison factor. 4.Among the 7 variables, the social comparisons of appearance evaluation, peer relationship and family have the highest predictive power on self-esteem. 5.The social comparison variables have higher predictive power on self-esteem than objective variables. Based on the findings, several suggestions are also proposed for the guidance and counseling of adolescent students.

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社會比較, 自尊, 羞恥感, 原生家庭, social comparison, self-esteem, shame, family of origin

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