呂坤童蒙教育理念與實施內涵研究 A Study in the Ideas and Practice of Lu Kun's Child Education

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明代是中國童蒙教育的黃金時期,諸多學者相繼提出許多訓蒙理念,而呂坤亦是其中之一,他不但有一套自己的童蒙教育理念,亦致力於蒙學教材、訓蒙相關文章的書寫,更欲將其許多教育想法落實於社學,以啟迪蒙童。本研究旨在探討呂坤的童蒙教育觀,屬於歷史研究,透過文獻分析,主要經由呂坤的思想論著及童蒙專著,探究呂坤的童蒙教育理念與實施相關內涵。其主要研究發現如下: 壹、明代的童蒙教育在各方面都有長足的進步,其興盛的原因甚多,包括政治、社會經濟、技術、學者等諸多因素,故在蒙學機構、蒙學教材、教育內容、教學方法、受教者與施教者等多方面都有重大的突破。 貳、關於呂坤童蒙教育的哲理基礎,在心性論上,呂坤認為人性有善有惡,透過教育可涵養人的善心善性,他提出注重初發、因材適性、賞罰並濟、禮樂教育與自我提升五項導人向善的方法。並點出虛心、養心、勿自欺與存心主靜四項治心之法。在知行觀上,呂坤認為知與行的關係是輔助並進,且知行應合一,而其中則含有啟發自覺、用心領知、格物致知的教育蘊義。 參、呂坤童蒙教育的理念,在蒙學著作閱讀對象上,約略可分為全體兒童、宗族子弟、兒孫子輩三大類;在教育理念上,以儒家為主,兼及佛道兩家思想;在教育內容上,以道德教育為主,輔以少許生活與智識教育。 肆、至於呂坤童蒙教育的實施內涵,在教育的功能方面,有使人明理知義、修己成人、以學校教化改善社會風氣、擴張教育機會並重視弱勢四項;在教育的原則方面,有及早教育、注意家教、符合身心發展、學貴慎始、賞罰分明、靜心養性、重視自省等七項;在教育內容方面,有倫理涵養、生活常規、智識教育與歌詩舞樂四大層面;在教學方法方面,包括識字、寫字、讀書、寫作;在學校方面,社學是呂坤落實童蒙教育的重要機構,規劃層面廣泛,包括成立宗旨、設置時地、教學型式、官員職責、經費編列等;在施教者方面,包括初步挑選、培育、篩選、待遇等;在受教者方面,涵括年齡、弱勢補助相關規範。 今昔對比、以古為鏡,呂坤的童蒙教育亦對今人有許多啟示與省思,如在品德教育、師資議題、古今中西兒童教育的比較與及早教育等層面,都值得我們學習與思考。
Ming dynasty was the golden age of child education in traditional China. A great number of scholars proposed their ideas of child education one after another, and Lu Kun was one of them who not only raised some particular ideas of child education, but also engaged in compiling primers and articles about child education. Moreover, Lu Kun intended to practice his ideas of child education by She Xue (community schools), which was the agency of child education in Ming. The purpose of this study is to inquire Lu Kun's the ideas and practice of child education. By historical research, Lu’s works about child education were analyzed. The main findings are as follows: 1. Child education in Ming dynasty was progressive relatively. The reasons for its flourishing were complicated, including political, social, economic, technical, scholars aspects, and so on. Therefore, there were significant breakthrough in agencies of child education, primers, content of courses, teaching methods, teachers and students. 2. With regard to the philosophical foundation about Lu's child education, on the one hand, his human nature theory claimed there were the nature of goodness and evilness. He proposed five methods to guide human being to become more and more kind-hearted, including putting more effort into the beginning, teaching in accordance with aptitude, making use of both rewardand punishment, implementing rites and music education, and promoting one’s self-morality. On the other hand, as to his epistmology theory, Lu Kun deemed that the relation between knowing and doing should be complementary and syncretic. Moreover, large amounts of educational meanings, such as enlightening self-consciousness, comprehending by intention, and extending knowledge by inquiring things were implicated. 3. With respect to the ideas of Lu's child education, there were three key points. First, his primers were writtened for three kinds of readers: children, the younger generation of clan, sons and off-springs. Second, his ideas of education included the elements of Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Third, moral education was the major element of subject matter, but supplemented with some life education and knowledge education, 4. As to the practice of Lu's child education, he had large amounts of contributions. In the aspects of educational foundations, there were four important points: enlightenment of populace, self-cultivation for devoting to the community, improvement of the atmosphere society through schooling, expansion of educational opportunities and care of disadvantaged children. In the aspects of education principles, there were seven important points, including education at proper time, paying attention to family education, conforming to both physical and mental development, and being cautious in the beginning of learning, fair rewards and punishment, tranquilizing the spirit, thinking highly of introspection. In the aspects of education contents, there were four important elements: ethics education, daily behavior, knowledge education, virtuous poetry and music. In teaching methods, there were four ways: literate education, calligraphic education, reading and writing. In the recruitment of teachers, it involved a primary selection, cultivation, filteration and payment. In the aspects of students, it involved regulations about schooling age and subsiding disadvantaged children. In the institution of schooling, She Xue was the important agency to realize his child education ideas. His scheme for She Xue was comprehensive, including purposes of establishment, time and location of installing, patterns of teaching, duties of officials, budgets, and so on. By comparison, there are many implications from Lu's child education, for example, moral education, topics of teachers, diversity between past and present, or between China and West, education seasonable, and so forth.
呂坤, 童蒙教育, 明代, 社學, Lu Kun, child education, Ming dynasty, She Xue