國民中小學校園露營地之設置研究

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2016

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本研究目的旨在瞭解設置在北台灣七縣市地區內,國民中小學學校內的校園設施--校園露營地之現況,包括營地現況及規模、所在地、場域設施、使用現況、經營與管理等。研究方法是藉由對北臺灣七縣市1062所國中小的總務主任或事務組長先做電話普查,篩選出校園內擁有「校園露營地」的20所學校進行實地田野踏查,將現有的「校園露營地」做現況描述,再透過該校及使用過校園露營地的師生們之問卷調查,發現北台灣國民中小學校園露營地設置的現狀,與教師、學生使用該場地的使用意見與建議;從專家訪談內容中、蒐集的佐證資料,企圖建構一個師生們心目中理想的校園露營地的藍圖和設置要件,同時對相關單位提出建言,以供未來他校設置校園露營地之參考。 本研究結果有以下結論: 壹、國民中小學校園露營地的設置情形 一、北區七縣市校園露營地共計20座,其中國中14座,國小6座。 二、北區各縣市校園露營地設置比例在0%~5%之間。 三、校園露營地的所在位置有70%位在「鄉鎮市郊」或「偏遠(鄉)」地區。 四、校園露營地的設置與存廢仰賴政府政策推動以及經費奧援。 貳、國民中小學校園露營地的場域設施 一、校園露營地在各校園內的設置區位有單一獨立場地、沿邊界設置、融合設置、分散設置四種。 二、校園露營地所建置的設施分為基本設施、活動設施、其他設施 參、國民中小學校園露營地之使用現況 一、校園露營地的使用對象為校內師生及一般民眾 二、校園露營地的使用頻率偏低 三、師生建議營地需改進的設施為「雨天活動場」 肆、國民中小學校園露營地的經營管理 一、目前校園露營地有70%有對校外人士開放 二、校園露營地的修繕維護情形屬於較被動的態度,多數並未編列預算。 三、只有55%的學校有針對校園露營地訂定管理辦法 伍、建構理想的國民中小學校園露營地 一、理想的校園露營地設置要件除了基本設施、活動設施之外,應增加小隊活動空間。 二、理想的校園露營地應兼顧學生學習、課程設計、學校特色三方面,並設置在貼近山水之處,作為野外露營前的前置體驗場域。 三、校園露營地應適度的在每一區域建置一所,設置了校園露營地之後,要邁向永續經營,進而成立童軍戶外教育資源中心,創發校園露營地方案課程。 最後,由本研究結果的發現與結論,茲針對教育主管機關、國民中學行政單位與後續研究提出建議。
The aim of this research was to figure out the present condition of the campus campground at elementary and junior high schools in the seven cities in the Northern Taiwan. The size, the location, the installation and the facility, the usage, and the management of the campus campground were described respectively. The methods of this research were “interview survey,” “field work,” “the questionnaire survey” and “document analysis.” At first, the directors of General Affairs or the chiefs of Purchase and Maintenance at 1062 elementary and junior high schools in the seven cities were interviewed through telephone. Then, 20 schools of them that have campgrounds were selected to do the field survey to know the present condition of their campus campground. The teachers and students were asked to answer the questionnaire, which would enable this research to collect the opinions and suggestions from the users of their campus campground. Within the analysis on the collected data, such as the interviews and surveys, this thesis sought to lay out a blue print of an ideal campground for both teachers and students, and meanwhile set up the establishment standards for the relative departments. Hopefully, this can be a useful reference for other schools to set up their campus campgrounds. The results of this research are concluded as below: 1. The establishment condition of the campus campgrounds in the elementary and junior high schools. A. There were 20 campgrounds in the seven cities in the northern Taiwan, 14 of them in junior high schools and 6 in elementary. B. The proportion of the establishment condition was between 0% to 5%. C. 70% of the campus campgrounds were located at suburban or remote areas. D. The establishment or development of campus campgrounds was promoted by government and its fund. 2. The installation and facility of the campus campgrounds in the elementary and junior high schools. A. There were four major types that campus campgrounds were located. The first type was that a campus campground was located outside the boundary of a school. The second type of the campus campgrounds was located along the walls of the school boundary. The third type of the campus campground was that it did not have a clear boundary, and its facilities were open for people other than campers. The fourth type of the campus campground was that it did not have a clear boundary, and its facilities were scattered in the school, but these facilities were for the campers only. B. The facilities of the campus campground were categorized as the basic facility, the activity facility, and other facilities. 3. The present condition of the campus campgrounds in the elementary and junior high schools. A. The users were teachers and students at school, and the average citizens. B. The frequency of use for the campus campground was low. 4. The Management of the campus campgrounds in the elementary and junior high schools. A. 70% of the present campus campgrounds were open for the people outside school. B. The maintenance of the campus campgrounds was passively treated, most of which were not offered any budget. C. Only 55% of the schools worked out regulations on the campus campground. 5. The ideal blueprint of the campus campground in the elementary and junior high schools. A. Ideal installations should add an area for small groups to play activities besides the basic facility and the activity facility. B. An ideal campus campground should be set up within the considerations of students’ learning, design of curriculum and school characteristics. And it is better to be located at woods or waters, so that it can be a pre-experiencing area for students before the actual camping. C. Each area should have a campus campground, and should be with sustainable management. A Scout Camping Education Center is an ideal final state, which is to design courses for local campus campgrounds. Last but not least, according to the conclusion above, these suggestions are proposed to organizations of educational administration and schools.

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校園, 露營地, 校園露營地, campus, campground, campus campground

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