初探科學閱讀的過程行為與文本理解之關係

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2011

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本研究主要是利用眼球追蹤技術探討台灣北區大學以上學生的科學文本閱讀歷程與科學文本理解之關係。其中,閱讀理解的偵測是根據Kinsch(1988)所發展的建構-整合理論(construction-integration models)所設計的問題與分析架構來進行。。本研究使用的眼球追蹤系統澳洲Seeing Machine公司發展的 faceLAB 4.6系統,此系統能紀錄閱讀者的視覺注意力分配,資料分析方面則是採用GazeTraker 8.0軟體,提取受試者眼球凝視位置、眼球凝視時間、眼球凝視點數目與區域閱讀時間百分彼等資料進行比對,並進一步利用統計軟體進行相關及變異數分析。研究對象為27位大學以上學生,經由其背景領域分為人文領域組11人,理工領域組11人,地球科學領域組5人。受試者先進行一段與溫室氣體形成相關科學文本的閱讀,並輔以眼球追蹤系統紀錄閱讀行為。受試者於閱讀後進行文本理解開放式問卷,後續則進行上述之資料分析。 主要研究結果如下: (一)受試者於科學文本閱讀後,所回憶出的文本內容相關概念數僅與總概念數有統計相關。 (二)受試者的科學文本內容理解與閱讀示意圖及數據圖的凝視點數目多寡有統計相關。其中,閱讀數據圖之凝視點數目的多寡與概念的回憶及建構有正相關。 (三)閱讀示意圖之凝視點數目越多,似乎抑制了個人想法的建構;閱讀其他形態的圖之凝視點數目的多寡則似乎與文本理解較無關連。 (四)根據受試者背景分析可知,人文領域學生來說,圖表的理解與文本理解較有關連,而對理工領域學生而言,反而是文本的描述與說明與其文本理解相關。 關鍵字:閱讀理解、科學文本、圖文理解、眼球追蹤
The main purpose of this study is to explore the associations, if any, between University students’ science-text reading behaviors and comprehensions. Kinsch’s (1988) construction-integration model (CI model) was used for analyzing the text comprehension. The study employs the faceLAB 4.6 eye tracking system developed by Seeing Machines Company to record readers’ reading behaviors. Data were analyzed by uses GazeTraker 8.0 software. The eye gaze positions, fixation durations, fixation numbers and percentages of reading time in zone were collected to indicate reading behaviors. University students in the Northern part of Taiwan were the target subjects. In the study, participants were divided into social- science group (n = 11), general -science group (n = 11) and earth-science group (n = 5). Students were first asked to read a science text related to green-house gases and during reading their eye movements were recorded. Afterward, an open-ended questionnaire used to assess text comprehensions were given to the students to complete, The results are described as follows: 1. The number of topic related concepts recalled after reading was only statistically related to the total number of concepts; 2. The visual attentions on the conceptual/theoretical diagrams and numerical relation charts were related to text comprehensions. In addition, positive correlations were found between visual attention patterns on the numerical relation chart and the overall conceptual understanding; 3. The reading of conceptual/theoretical diagrams seems to inhibit the construction of personal ideas. No significant correlation was found between the reading of other types of diagram and the text comprehensions; 4. With respect to subjects’ academic backgrounds, it was found that text comprehensions were correlated to the graphic understandings among social-science students. Meanwhile, text comprehensions were associated with visual attentions on areas containing descriptions and explanations among general science students. Key words: Reading Comprehension, Scientific text, Graphic understand, Eye-tracking

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閱讀理解, 科學文本, 圖文理解, 眼球追蹤, Reading Comprehension, Scientific text, Graphic understand, Eye-tracking

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