Michael Slote的同理心(empathy)概念及其道德教育的蘊義

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2017

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本研究旨在通過概念分析及詮釋學方法,對於Michael Slote的同理心概念及其道德教育的蘊義進行分析。主要研究的目的如下:(一)釐清empathy之字源、字根及其概念。(二)理解與分析Slote以同理心所開展之道德情感理論。(三)介紹Slote的同理心概念所遇到的批判與Slote的回應。(四)探究Slote的道德情感主義之同理心描述對道德教育的啟示。 本論文的研究結果如下:(一)Slote強調道德判斷需建立在同理心機制的贊同與反對,始能幫助對於道德判斷上對與錯的認識。(二)Slote主張同理心與行為動機的必然聯繫,並能給予我們在道德義務與道德原則上的支持。(三)在道德教育的方法上,Slote贊同Hoffman的主張,強調教師需要注意同理心的特性,以「誘導訓練」作為教育的方法(四)在師生關係上,Slote強調適當的同理心機制與尊重自主的相關,強調尊重學生自主的情感基礎。
The present thesis is intended to present a scrutiny of Michael Slote’s concept of empathy offered in the field of moral sentimentalism and, specifically, focuses on the implications with regard to moral education. The argumentation consists of four parts: (1) a thorough investigation of the concept of empathy from contemporary definition to its historical context, (2) an examination of Slote’s concept of empathy in his moral sentimentalism, (3) critiques of Slote’s moral sentimentalism and his reply, and (4) implications for moral education. In Slote’s theory of moral sentimentalism, moral approval and disapproval are based upon the mechanism of empathy and the way they enter into moral judgments. This approach helps broaden the understanding of moral right/ wrong. Empathy, as Slote argues, plays a greater part in motivating moral agent than reason does and moral sentimentalism is therefore more an explanatory theory than rational deontology. Slote agrees with the teaching method of “induction” , proposed by Hoffman, another leading figure of empathy and moral education. Compiling Slote’s concept of empathy with the ideas of respect and autonomy in his later reply to critiques, the thesis presents a teacher-student relation based on empathy, where student’s autonomy is respected by teacher.

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麥可·斯洛特, 道德情感主義, 同理心, 道德教育, Michael Slote, moral sentimentalism, empathy, moral education

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