正念介入對職業高爾夫選手心理需求滿足與幸福感的影響:腦造影之研究

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2020

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運動員在長期高競爭的競技壓力情境,擁有高水準的心理功能與最佳運動表現是運動心理學家所重視的。正念被認為可以增進幸福感。根據 SDT 的觀點,正念覺察被視為個體主動探索內、外在世界,以滿足基本心理需求的基本要素。不論在心理需求滿足或是幸福感相關議題上,探索大腦的相關神經表徵才在剛起步的階段,檢驗基本心理需求滿足與幸福感的大腦神經反應在神經科學仍是一個新興研究領域。在競技運動競技運動情境中,僅有相關性研究指出正念能透過滿足基本心理需求影響運動員的幸福感,還需未來研究來確立此模式的因果關係。本研究採用單一受試者設計 (single-subject design) 結合 A-B-A 與跨參與者多基準線設計,並結合神經科學影像測量方式來檢驗正念對職業高爾夫選手基本心理需求滿足與幸福感腦區的影響。針對 4 名高爾夫職業運動員為對象,經參與者同意後,參與實驗,含:基礎期、介入期、追蹤期,每週進行 2 次的資料收集,包括:正念狀態、基本心理需求滿足、心理幸福感、主觀幸福感。分別於正念介入前後進行 MRI 靜大腦息狀態掃瞄的前、後測。以視覺分析、C 統計分析、體素分析、群組分析進行資料處理。縱貫式結果顯示:正念訓練介入對基本心理需求滿足、幸福感皆有正向提升效果。介入後,右前腦島與右尾狀核、左丘腦的功能性聯結顯著減少;右腦島與左內側額上迴、右背外側額上迴、右內側扣帶迴的的功能性聯結顯著增加。根據研究結果,8 週正念訓練能夠有效提升職業高爾夫選手的基本心理需求滿足與幸福感,並發現客觀性的大腦神經證據。建議未來能推廣正念訓練相關課程,以提升運動員對的正念的相關知識,進而提升其基本心理需求滿足與幸福感。
Athletes who have long-term high competitive competitive stress situations, have high-level psychological functions and the best sports performance are valued by sports psychologists. Mindfulness is thought to increase well-being. According to SDT, awareness in the concept of mindfulness is regarded as an essential element for individuals to actively explore the internal and external world to satisfy psychological needs. Whether the issues related to the satisfaction of psychological needs or well-being, the exploration of relevant neural representations of the brain is just in its starting, and testing the neural responses of the psychological needs fulfillment and well-being is still an emerging research field in neuroscience. In competitive sports situations, only correlation studies indicated that mindfulness could affect athletes' well-being by psychological needs fulfillment, future research is needed to establish the causality of this model. This study used a single-subject design combined with A-B-A and cross-participant multi-baseline design, adde with neuroscience image measurement methods to examine the effects of mindfulness on professional golfers’ psychological needs fulfillment and well-being brain area. The participants in this study were four professional golfers, and completed the entire protocol including: baseline, intervention, follow-up. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires twice a week which include mindfulness states, psychological needs fulfillment, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being, and attended an fMRI protocols both before the start of training and after training finished. All participants gave informed consent and were paid for participation. This study used visual analysis, C statistics, multi-voxel pattern analysis, and group analyses for the data analyses. The longitudinal results showed that the intervention of mindfulness training effectively enhanced psychological needs fulfillment and well-being. After the intervention, the functional connectivity of the right anterior insular cortex with the right caudate and the left thalamus were signicantly decreased. After the intervention, the functional connectivity of the right anterior insular cortex with the right caudate, and the left thalamus were signicantly decreased; the functional connectivity of the right insula with the left superior frontal gyrus, the right dorsolateral frontal gyrus, and the right medial cingulate gyrus were signicantly increased. Results suggest that 8 weeks of mindfulness training could effectively enhance professional golfers’ psychological needs fulfillment and well-being, and found objective neurological evidence. In the future, mindfulness training should be promoted to improve athletes’ knowledge of mindfulness, thereby enhancing their psychological needs fulfillment and well-being.

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單一受試者設計, 跨參與者多基準線設計, 神經科學影像, 功能性聯結, single subject design, cross-participant multi-baseline design, neuroscience imaging, functional connectivity

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